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""Digital-to-Analog conversion""
Digital-to-analog conversion is a process in which signals having a few (usually two) defined levels or states (digital) are converted into signals having a theoretically infinite number of states (analog). A common example is the processing, by a modem,of computer data into audio-frequency (AF) tones that can be transmitted over a twisted pair telephone line. The circuit that performs this function is a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Basically, digital-to-analog conversion is the opposite of analog-to-digital conversion. In most cases, if an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is placed in a communications circuit after a DAC, the digital signal output is identical to the digital signal input. Also, in most instances when a DAC is placed after an ADC, the analog signal output is identical to the analog signal input. Binary digital impulses, all by themselves, appear as long strings of ones and zeros, and have no apparent meaning to a human observer. But when a DAC is used to decode the binary digital signals, meaningful output appears. This might be a voice, a picture, a musical tune, or mechanical motion. Both the DAC and the ADC are of significance in some applications of digital signal processing. The intelligibility or fidelity of an analog signal can often be improved by converting the analog input to digital form using an ADC, then clarifying the digital signal, and finally converting the "cleaned-up" digital impulses back to analog form using an DAC.
"Analog-to-Digital conversion"
Analog-to-digital conversion is an electronic process in which a continuously variable (analog) signal is changed, without altering its essential content, into a multi-level (digital) signal. The input to an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) consists of a voltage that varies among a theoretically infinite number of values. Examples are sine waves, the waveforms representing human speech, and the signals from a conventional television camera. The output of the ADC, in contrast, has defined levels or states. The number of states is almost always a power of two -- that is, 2, 4, 8, 16, etc. The simplest digital signals have only two states, and are called binary. All whole numbers can be represented in binary form as strings of ones and zeros. Digital signals propagate more efficiently than analog signals, largely because digital impulses, which are well-defined and orderly, are easier for electronic circuits to distinguish from noise, which is chaotic. This is the chief advantage of digital modes in communications. Computers "talk" and "think" in terms of binary digital data; while a microprocessor can analyze analog data, it must be converted into digital form for the computer to make sense of it. A typical telephone modem makes use of an ADC to convert the incoming audio from a twisted-pair line into signals the computer can understand. In a digital signal processing system, an ADC is required if the signal input is analog.

"Security Camera and Security Camera System"
Security cameras or closed circuit TV (CCTV) was initially developed as a means of security for banks. Today, however, it has developed to something more than just surveillance used for commercial purposes. The technology of security cameras these days have become simpler so that they are inexpensive enough to be used in home security systems and for everyday surveillance. Development of Technology The first security cameras used in public places were crude and conspicuous. They used low definition black and white systems without even the ability to zoom or pan. Advances in technology led to more sophisticated systems which became the precursors to the modern security camera. Today, security or CCTV cameras use small high definition color cameras that can not only focus to resolve minute detail but also semi-automatically track down objects by linking the control of the cameras to a computer. For instance, a typical modern security camera can track movement across a scene where should be no movement. It may also be able to lock onto a single object in a busy environment and follow it. Because the system is computerized, it is now possible to let this tracking process work between cameras. In the United Kingdom, specifically in London, security cameras are used in combination with compute imaging systems to track car number plates. This is a security measure taken by the government in case of an instance of crime, such as car-napping. Information from security cameras on car number plates are also used to generate billing information. The latest development in security cameras, aside from the new imaging techniques, is computerized monitoring. This allows the camera operator to run more cameras since he no longer needs to endlessly look at all the screens. The computerized system of this new security camera tracks the behavior of people, searching for any particular types of movement, particular types of clothing or baggage.

"Definitions/Abbreviations/Index/Units"
Definitions/Abbreviations/Index/Units: Alternating Current (AC) ~ means the voltage supply is constantly changing value
Amperes (A) ~ unit of current ~ usually abbreviated as Amps
Assembler ~ Software that converts your assembly code into machine codes
Assembly Code ~ Low level language mostly used for Microcontrollers such as 8051
Binary ~ implies two possible values, 0 or 1
BIOS ~ Basic Input Output System - A small program that handles basic input and output operations
Bit ~ a binary digit ~ one piece of information, either 0 or 1 (0 or 5 volts usually)
BJT ~ Bipolar Junction Transistor ~ a type of transistor
Byte ~ 8 bits
Capacitance (C) ~ has units of Farads (F) ~ usually given in micro farads (uF) ~ a measure of the amount of charge a device can store.
Capacitor ~ Stores charge (like a battery) and can be used to buffer power supply lines to provide extra charge when needed. Can also be used in other places to filter out sudden changes in voltage. The amount of charge a capacitor can store is measured by it's capacitance. The unit of measurement is the Farad
CGA ~ Color Graphics Array
CMOS ~ Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
Compiler ~ Software that converts high level language (C, Pascal, etc.) into machine codes
Current ~ Current is what flows through a wire. Think of it as water flowing in a river. The current flows from one point to another point just like water in a river. Current flows from points of high voltage to points of low voltage. Current can be shown in circuit diagrams by using arrows as in Figure 1. The arrow shows which way the current is flowing. An I is usually included beside the arrow to indicate current.
Direct Current ~ means the voltage supply has a constant, output voltage is not varying
Decimal ~ normal number system with values 0 to 9
Digital ~ implies two possible values usually given by binary values, 0 or 1
Diode ~ component that allows current to flow in only one direction
DMA ~ Direct Memory Access
EDO ~ Extended Data Out
EGA ~ Enhanced Graphics Adapter
EMS ~ Expanded Memory Specification
Emulator ~ Software which accepts machine codes (or possibly higher level languages) and converts those commands into signals on a piece of hardware which can actually be used in place of a real micro-controller (or processor) in a physical system. Can accept signals from the other system hardware just as the real device would do.
EPROM ~ Electrically Programmable Read Only Memory - A device which can be programmed with data. Requires ultraviolet light to erase. (Usually takes 15 - 30 minutes to erase)
Farad ~ unit of measurement for capacitance
FET ~ Field Effect Transistor
Flash Memory ~ A memory device that can be quickly (<30 seconds) erased and reprogrammed without having to be erased with ultraviolet light.
Inductor ~ A device that can create and store an electric field
Kilo (k) ~ prefix meaning 1000 (1 kilo ohm = 1000 ohms = 1 kohm)
Large Word ~ 32 bits
LCD ~ Liquid Crystal Display
Machine Codes ~ 8, 16, or 32 bit numbers that are instructions/commands for a computer chip
Micro (u) ~ prefix meaning 0.000001 (1 micro farad = 0.000001 Farads = 1 uF)
Milli (m) ~ Prefix meaning 0.001 (1 milliAmp = 0.001 Amps = 1 mA)
MOS ~ Metal Oxide Semiconductor ~ a type of transistor material
Nibble ~ 4 bits
Node ~ a connection point between two or more components
Ohms ~ unit of measurement for resistance
Parallel Connection ~ for components ~ connecting two components with two common points
Parallel Connection ~ for computers ~ transmission of data over several parallel lines simultaneously, through a parallel port
pF ~ pico Farad
Potentiometer ~ fancy name for variable resistor
Pull Down Resistor ~ A resistor connected from any point to Ground to pull that point to Ground when no other voltages are present. Can be a large resistor for a weak pull (maybe 100K) or a small resistor for a strong pull (maybe 1K).
Pull Up Resistor ~ A resistor connected from any point to Vcc to pull that point to Vcc when no other voltages are present. Can be a large resistor for a weak pull (maybe 100K) or a small resistor for a strong pull (maybe 1K).
Quad Word ~ 64 bits
Rail ~ usually refers to a power supply node
Resistance (R) ~ measure of the opposition to current flow (higher resistance means less current flow), has units of ohms
Resistor ~ component with predetermined resistance
Series Connection ~ for components ~ connecting two components with one common point
Series Connection ~ for computers ~ transmission of data over two lines at most, one for receive, one for transmit, through a serial port
SIMM ~ Single Inline Memory Module
Simulator ~ Software that accepts machine codes (or possibly higher level languages) and simulates what a computer chip (or microcontroller) would do with those machine codes.
Transistor ~ component that acts like a switch
Transformer ~ a device which changes voltage levels
Truth Table ~ a table which gives the results of an operation
uF ~ micro Farad ~ see Micro and Farad
Unity Gain ~ An amplifier configuration where the output voltage equals the input voltage (Gain = 1) VA ~ Volt Amps, A measure of power equal to Watts
Variable Resistor ~ component that allows you to vary its resistance
Vcc ~ One of the power supply voltages, often 5 Volts DC in digital systems
VGA ~ Video Graphics Array Voltage (V) ~ has unit of volts (V) Volts (V) ~ unit of measurement of voltage Voltage ~ Voltage indicates the power level of a point. Voltage is measured in volts. If we continue the river comparison, a point at the top of a hill would be at a high voltage level and a point at the bottom of a hill would be at a low voltage level. Then, just as water flows from a high point to a low point, current flows from a point of high voltage to a point of low voltage. If one point is at 5 volts and another point is at 0 volts then when a wire is connected between them, current will flow from the point at 5 volts to the point at 0 volts.There are two special cases that we give names. One is when the current is zero (open circuit) and the other is when the voltage is zero (short circuit).
Watts ~ A measure of power found by multiplying the Voltage by the Current
Word ~ 16 bits

"FUNCTIONAL MRI"
Recently it was discovered that magnetic resonance imaging can be used to map changes in brain haemodynamics that correspond to mental operations extending traditional anatomical imaging to include maps of human brain function. This ability to observe the structures and also which structures participate in specific functions is thanks to developing a new technique called functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI. It provides high resolution, noninvasive reports of neural activity detected by a blood -oxygen level-dependent signal. This ability to directly observe brain function throws open several new opportunities to advance human understanding of brain organization, as well as a potential new standard for assessing neurological status and risks in neuro-surgery. Functional MRI (fMRI) is based on the increase in blood flow to the local blood vessels during neural activity in the brain. This results in a corresponding local reduction in deoxyhaemoglobin because the increase in blood flow occurs without a similar magnitude in oxygenation. Since deoxyhaemoglobin is paramagnetic, it alters the weighted magnetic resonance image signal. Thus, deoxyhaemoglobin becomes an endogenous contrast-enhancing agent, and serves as the source of the signal for fMRI. Using an appropriate imaging sequence, human cortical functions can be observed without the use of exogenous contrast enhancing agents on a clinical strength scanner. Functional activity of the brain determined from the magnetic resonance signal has so far confirmed known anatomically distinct processing areas in the visual cortex, the motor cortex and Broca's area of speech and language-related activities. The main advantages to fMRI as a technique to image brain activity related to a specific task or sensory process include 1) the signal does not require injections of radioactive isotopes, 2) the total scan time required can be very short, i.e., on the order of 1.5 to 2.0 min per run (depending on the paradigm), and 3) the in-plane resolution of the functional image is generally about 1.5 x 1.5 mm although resolutions less than 1 mm are possible. It may be remembered that the functional images obtained by the earlier method of positron emission tomography (PET), required injections of radioactive isotopes, multiple acquisitions, and, therefore, extended imaging times. But the expected resolution of PET images is much larger than the usual fMRI pixel size. The PET however, usually requires that multiple individual brain images are combined in order to obtain a reliable signal. Consequently, information on a single patient is compromised and limited to a certain number of imaging sessions. These limitations while serving many neuroscience applications are not best suited in a neurosurgical or treatment plan for a specific individual.

"Cable Modem and Signals"
In the area of science and technology, cable modem is but a common term. However, not all people are familiar with it; some don’t even know what it is. Actually, a cable modem is a special type of modem, which is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode the digital information and at the same time demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. It is basically designed to modulate a data signal over cable television infrastructure. According to some experts in field of technology, a cable modem should not be confused with the older LAN systems like the 10base2 or 10base5 that particularly employed coaxial cables, which are known to be electrical cables composing of a round conducting wire and surrounded by an insulating spacer, a cylindrical conducting sheath, and a final insulating layer. It is also important to understand that a cable modem should not be confused with the 10broad36, which basically employed similar kind of cable as CATV systems do. Furthermore, a cable modem is primarily utilized for the main purpose of delivering broadband internet access. It is a common idea that a cable modem takes advantage of unused bandwidth on a cable television network. It is also interesting to know that along with the digital subscriber line technology, a cable modem usually steered in the age of broadband internet access in some developed countries. And speaking of internet access, it is worth noting that before the introduction of this concept, it involves slow dial-up access for more than a public switched telephone network. Nowadays, most of the users in a neighborhood usually share the available bandwidth that is given by a sole coaxial cable line. With this fact, the connection speed then can be said to vary and differ depending on how many people are using the cable modem and its service at the same time. In most cases, the concept of shared line is noted as weak angle of cable internet access. A cable modem then is what most of the cable networks used so to ensure a good network performance.

"Antenna"
An antenna is a specialized transducer that converts radio-frequency (RF) fields into alternating current (AC) or vice-versa. There are two basic types: the receiving antenna, which intercepts RF energy and delivers AC to electronic equipment, and the transmitting antenna, which is fed with AC from electronic equipment and generates an RF field. In computer and Internet wireless applications, the most common type of antenna is the dish antenna, used for satellite communications. Dish antennas are generally practical only at microwave frequencies (above approximately 3 GHz). The dish consists of a paraboloidal or spherical reflector with an active element at its focus. When used for receiving, the dish collects RF from a distant source and focuses it at the active element. When used for transmitting, the active element radiates RF that is collimated by the reflector for delivery in a specific direction. At frequencies below 3 GHz, many different types of antennas are used. The simplest is a length of wire, connected at one end to a transmitter or receiver. More often, the radiating/receiving element is placed at a distance from the transmitter or receiver, and AC is delivered to or from the antenna by means of an RF transmission line, also called a feed line or feeder.

"Liquid Crystal Communication"
Liquid crystals are a class of liquids whose molecules are more orderly than molecules in regular fluids. Because of this orderliness, when these liquids interact with light, they can affect the light like crystals do. Making droplets of liquid crystals is nothing new; the basic technology has been around since the mid-1980s. Today you can find such droplets in the window-walls of some executives' offices. With the flip of a switch, the office's transparent windows magically change to opaque walls somewhat like frosted glass.

"Hybrid Cars: The Magic Braking"
You have undoubtedly seen one of the hybrid cars on the road. You probably heard that they are unlike any other fossil fuel or electric car. They are sort of both. If you owned one of these hybrid cars, you would put gasoline into it, just like you do for your regular car. You would not have to recharge it, like an electric car. Still, your hybrid car would be capable of using half the gasoline that your regular car does for the same trip! How is that possible? The secret is in the braking. When you step on your brakes, what happens? The car slows down because two metal blocks in your wheels rub together. This friction-based braking produces a lot of heat; just like the palms of your hands get warm when you rub them together rapidly. This heat is basically wasted energy. Hybrid cars have a more intelligent braking system, so called regenerative braking. Instead of wasting the heat energy, they transfer it to an electrical generator and battery (and hence self-charge), or a fly-wheel and store it for later use. The onboard computer then calculates the best time to use this stored energy and reduce combustion engine use. Thus a hybrid car drives on combustion engine only part of the time. This switch between combustion engine and electric motor power is in most cases so seamless that you don't even notice it. This concept is ingenious and environment-friendly.

"Smoke Detectors"
How does a smoke detector 'know' when there is a fire? Smoke detectors use one of two different methods to do their job, and for both methods the basic operating assumption is the cliche 'where there's smoke there's fire'. Smoke is of course, essential to the operation of a smoke detector, and it is the physical interaction of smoke particles with either light or nuclear radiation that is the basis of a detector operation. The principle by which an optical smoke detector works can be readily seen by shining a small laser pointer into a foggy sky. Rays of light can only be seen when they shine directly into one's eyes; they can not be seen from the side. The laser however, is clearly visible in the fog. As the light strikes the small suspended droplets of fog some are reflected away at angles to the original path, and these are what makes the beams of light visible from the side. In an optical smoke detector, light travels down a path from an emitter to a detector. This light must pass a tube positioned at right angles to the path that the light must follow. When smoke enters the light path, some of the light bounces off the suspended smoke particles and passes down this tube. It is detected there by a photocell, whose current triggers the alarm sound of the smoke detector.Optical smoke detectors are good, but they can be fairly easily fooled by other air-borne materials, leading to false alarms. Ionizing smoke detectors use a very small amount of the radioactive element Americium-241 as a source of ionizing radiation. As the atoms of Am-241 break down they emit positively-charged alpha particles. These energetic, charged particles interact with nitrogen and oxygen molecules in the air to produce corresponding ions. The heart of an ionizing smoke detector is a set of electrically charged plates constructed in such a way that this constant flow of ions produces a measurable current. When even a small amount of smoke enters an ionizing smoke detector, the smoke particles interfere with the ionization process, causing an interruption in the flow of ions to the detector plates and a loss of current to the circuit. This loss of current allows another circuit to become active, and when this happens the alarm is sounded.Ionizing smoke detectors are more common than optical smoke detectors. They are not only considerably cheaper to build, but are more sensitive to smoke itself.

"Infrared Headphones"
Infrared headphones use infrared light to carry an information signal from a transmitter to a receiver. Sounds simple enough, but the actual process is very complicated. The human ear gathers sound as compression waves pass through and distort the air. These sympathetic distortions produce resonant vibrations in parts of the ear, which in turn trigger nerve impulses that are interpreted by the brain as various sounds. In no way is the human ear equipped to utilize either electrical impulses or beams of light as sound sources. Earphones 'translate' information from these sources into something that we can hear. In typical headphones, an electrical signal travels from the signal source to a pair of tiny speakers. The speakers contain a diaphragm attached to an electromagnet. As current through the electromagnet varies with the electrical signal from the source, the diaphragm vibrates in response. These vibrations translate through the air in the wearer's ear passages and into the ear. In wireless headphones, the signal is carried by a beam of infrared light, rather than by solid wires. This requires the action of a 'translator' in the sending unit to convert the electrical signal from the source into a stream of data that can be expressed with infrared light. It also requires the action of an 'interpreter' in the receiving unit to convert the infrared data stream back into an electrical signal that will drive the small speakers of the headphones. As a data carrying device, an infrared light source may seem quite limited. It can, after all, have only two operating states: 'on' and 'off'. Yet this simple limitation lends itself perfectly to digital transmission. In this mode, the analog signal from the source can be translated into a series of 'on' and 'off' signals, forming a digital data stream. Alternatively, the infrared light can serve as the carrier for a modulated signal. The modulation pattern of the light can mimic the on and off signals of the digital data stream. However the infrared light is utilized, it is emitted from the source, effectively 'broadcasting' its content, to be picked up by a receiving unit. The receiving unit is the infrared sensor on the TV, the VCR or DVD machine, or on the infrared headphone set. The transmitted signal thus captured is electronically 'decoded' and converted back into the corresponding electrical impulses that drive the tiny speakers in the headset.

"Fiber Optics "
The sun is shining; it's a brilliant day. The springboard flexes powerfully under your feet as you launch into a graceful arc through the air and into the crystal clear water below. Arms extended, you let the momentum of your dive take you back toward the surface. As you near the surface, the interface between the water and the air, you notice something interesting. You can't see out of the water! Instead, you see the inside of the pool reflected clearly in a shimmering, silvery mirror. What you have just seen is the principle that makes fiber optics both practical and functional. The phenomenon is known as 'total internal reflection', or TIR. The principle of TIR has been known or at least suspected since the 1840's, when David Colloden and Jacques Babinet first designed and built water fountain displays in which the streams of water also guided or carried light to enhance the display. As the theory and understanding of the behaviour of light improved, the ability to utilize the principle of TIR also improved. In essence, an interface between two materials, such as between water and air or between glass and air, acts as a reflective surface. Glass that has been drawn into long, thin, and highly flexible fibers, and is then coated with a non-absorbing material provides an interface that reflects essentially all light back into the fiber itself, allowing none to escape through the periphery of the glass fiber. The reflected light beam bounces back and forth from interface to interface along the length of the fiber, until it exits the end of the fiber as an exact image of the light that first entered the fiber. As a communications or message carrier, optical fibers alone are not enough. Ordinary light, and even polarized light, contain a vast range of wavelengths, all in different phases of their vibratory cycles. The laser is the final key that makes fiber optics feasible for communication purposes. Since the light waves from a laser are all within a very narrow range of wavelengths and are all in the same phase of their vibratory cycles, the signal, and the message it carries, does not get all twisted about and mashed into an incomprehensible blur by the countless reflections experienced as it passes from one end of the fiber to the other.

"GPS (Global Positioning System)"
The GPS, or Global Positioning System, is the high-tech application of one of the most fundamental principles of geometry. Surveyors routinely use geometry and triangulation to map and lay out areas of land. Until recently they used high quality optical telescopes called 'theodolites' and mechanical measuring devices to carry out the surveying process. But as technology has changed, so has the surveyor's craft. The laser, digital electronics, space travel, and several other technological advances have all combined to make surveying and triangulation far more precise and accurate than they used to be, and allow measurements to be routinely obtained from distances that traditional surveyors could only dream about. GPS, the Global Positioning System, has come about as a natural development of the advances in surveying technology. It consists of a series of 24 satellites in orbit 11,000 miles (17,600 kilometers) above Earth. Each satellite orbits Earth once every 12 hours, and each carries a highly accurate clock with the ability to measure time to 3 billionths of a second. All 24 of the satellite clocks are synchronized with each other and each one broadcasts its own time signature. The GPS receiver is programmed to read the time signature of four satellite signals, and to measure the difference in time between receipt of the four signals. Since the signals all travel at exactly the same speed, and all of the satellites are different distances away from any particular point on the planet, each signal takes a measurably different amount of time to reach a particular receiver. This time difference is used by the receiver to calculate the distance to each of the 4 satellite sources and thus triangulate the exact location of the receiver on the planet's surface. To complete the system, 5 ground stations located throughout the world monitor and maintain the proper functioning of the satellites. The GPS can fix one's location anywhere on the planet to within a few inches. This allows very precise navigation and control of the movement of people and things on the planet's surface. Unfortunately, this sort of accuracy could be useful to an enemy. The U.S. government intentionally scrambles the signal slightly to reduce the available accuracy, just enough to avoid untoward use of the positioning system while maintaining an acceptable degree of accuracy for the system to be generally useful. The GPS is already being used to produce the most accurate maps ever, for surveying and documentation, for prospecting, for on-the-fly navigation systems, and in agriculture to help regulate the application and use of fertilizers. Other uses for this ingenious system are being developed every day.

"How Can A Bullet-proof Vest Stop A Bullet? "
Here's an experiment: take the small coil springs from a dozen or so retractable pens and roll them together in a heap until they are thoroughly tangled and entwined. Now try to pull them apart from end to end. You should find them extremely difficult to pull apart this way, as anyone who has ever tried to untangle a 'Slinky' toy will know. Individually, those little coil springs offer only little resistance and can be completely stretched out very easily. But together they seem to acquire extra strength from each other, and it becomes increasingly difficult to stretch any of them. When they are tangled together, one has to stretch all of them in order to stretch any one of them. What this experiment gives you is an analogous image of what happens inside a 'bullet-proof' vest. A bullet fired from a gun has kinetic energy and momentum due to its mass and the velocity at which it travels. That bullet carries out its function by delivering its load of kinetic energy completely to its target. When it strikes the target transfer of energy is achieved as the bullet stops moving; the more quickly the bullet stops, the more rapidly the energy is transferred. This is the principle behind the 'knock down power' of any bullet-cartridge combination. A bullet-proof vest accepts the energy from the bullet and dissipates it so that only a small portion is passed on to the actual target, the person who is wearing the vest. That small portion of energy will probably still be enough to knock the wearer flat on his or her backside, it still hurts a lot, and will almost certainly leave a very unpleasant bruise at the point of impact. But if the vest has done its job, the bullet has not penetrated, and the person wearing it gets to walk away essentially unharmed. The secret to this is in the material used inside the vest. Believe it or not, a bullet-proof vest is filled with nothing more than several loose layers of a light plastic fabric. But not just any plastic will do the job. This application calls for plastic fibers of exceptionally high tensile strength, fibers that it takes a great deal of energy to stretch even the tiniest amount (not fibers that will stretch a lot before they break...). In this case, those fibers are made of a polyarylamide plastic known familiarly as 'Kevlar'. Kevlar is the proprietary name for the material; it is becoming more common to refer to the material generally as polyarylamide. Fibers of Kevlar don't stretch very readily when put under tension. In fact, this material is even harder to stretch than steel! But it weighs a great deal less than an equivalent value of steel fibers would weigh.

"How We Use Crystals To Tell Time"
Quartz clock operation is based on the piezoelectric property of quartz crystals. If you apply an electric field to the crystal, it changes its shape, and if you squeeze it or bend it, it generates an electric field. When put in a suitable electronic circuit, this interaction between mechanical stress and electric field causes the crystal to vibrate and generate an electric signal of relatively constant frequency that can be used to operate an electronic clock display. Quartz crystal clocks were better because they had no gears or escapements to disturb their regular frequency. Even so, they still relied on a mechanical vibration whose frequency depended critically on the crystal's size, shape and temperature. Thus, no two crystals can be exactly alike, with just the same frequency. Such quartz clocks and watches continue to dominate the market in numbers because their performance is excellent for their price. But the timekeeping performance of quartz clocks has been substantially surpassed by atomic clocks.

"Pass the Basalt"
Advanced composite materials technology is a field that is growing both quickly and steadily. That new fiber materials and applications will be developed is the proverbial 'no brainer'. However, basalt fiber represents one of those little strokes of simple genius that appear once in a while. Basalt itself is familiar from the columnar formations in volcanic deposits. That same columnar structure is a clue to the molecular behaviour of basalt, a hint that it might be a viable fiber-forming material. Molten basalt can indeed be extruded into fibers, but what was basalt first if not just molten rock ejected from the vent (a volcano...) of a very large furnace (the Earth...)? Where else do we see this happening? How about in the metals industry, where millions of tons of molten rock are ejected from somewhat smaller furnaces each year in the form of slag? Indeed, basalt fiber is now produced in quantity in two source grades: 'basalt', and 'modified basalt' or slag. Basalt fibers can be processed into all the fabric forms currently available with glass fiber, and they can be substituted directly into any application for which glass fiber is suitable. Basalt fiber materials are proving to be a very useful alternative in applications calling for a more robust version of glass fiber, and in other applications that have traditionally been the domain of rock fibers such as asbestos. Since basalt is also a rock fiber it exhibits far better heat resistance than does glass fiber, withstanding conditions that would quickly destroy glass constructs. It also exhibits a significantly higher chemical stability than does glass fiber. Being a recently developed material, research into potential applications of basalt fiber has really only just begun. The properties of basalt fiber will certainly guarantee that its major uses will be in the construction trades, but it will undoubtedly see far broader applications as well.

"Red Dot Replacing Cross Hairs"
A bullet fired from a gun becomes subject to the pull of gravity and begins to fall the instant it leaves the gun barrel. The farther away from the gun the bullet travels, the lower to the ground it gets. To compensate for this, guns are sighted in such a way that the bullet is actually going upwards when it leaves the barrel. The bullet then follows a 'ballistic' trajectory. The bullet rises up to a maximum height, then falls until it hits either its target or the ground. Sight adjustments are made so that the bullet follows its flight path and strikes its target point at a specific distance from the end of the gun. The cross-hairs in a traditional telescopic sight serve as a reference point for the shooter: they are to be adjusted so that when the shooter looks through the sight she or he sees the desired point of impact exactly where the cross-hairs cross. This type of sighting system requires the shooter to place his or her full attention at the weapon rather than at the target. 'Laser sights' function in much the same way. But instead of a pair of crossed hair (which are actually spider webbing) inside a telescope, they use a beam of laser light from a well-constructed laser device. The position of the laser beam relative to the barrel of the gun is adjusted so that highly-visible red dot of the laser coincides with the desired point of impact of the bullet at a specific distance. With this type of system, the shooter's attention is fully on the target itself rather than a point six inches in front of the eye. He or she then has only to look for the red dot, position it on the target accordingly, and pull the trigger. In more complex, advanced weapons systems, the laser serves the same purpose, but usually in a more technological way. Using electronic detection systems that 'recover' the laser signal, data is fed back into critical direction/distance control systems that allow a ground-based weapon system to shoot at and reliably strike a desired target several kilometers away. In other systems, a laser beam sighted onto a target by a 'spotter' is detected by an incoming missile that then uses that signal to guide its flight path directly to the target. The missile itself may have been fired a hundred kilometers or more away, but will strike within 10 centimeters of its intended target.

"DNA Translation"
DNA translation is the process that converts an mRNA sequence into a string of amino acids that form a protein. This fundamental process is responsible for creating the proteins that make up most cells. It also marks the final step in the journey from DNA sequence to a functional protein; the last piece of the central dogma to molecular biology.

"Catch A Shooting Star"
A meteor, sometimes called a 'shooting star,' can be the brightest object in the night sky, yet meteoroids are the smallest bodies in the solar system that can be observed by eye. Wandering through space, perhaps as debris left behind by a comet, meteoroids enter the earth's atmosphere, are heated by friction, and for a few seconds streak across the sky as a meteor with a glowing trail. A brilliant meteor, called a fireball, may weigh many kilograms, but even a meteor weighing less than a gram can produce a beautiful trail. Some of these visitors from space are large enough to survive (at least partially) their trip through the atmosphere and impact the ground as meteorites. Fireballs are sometimes followed by trails of light that persist for up to 30 minutes; some, called bolides, explode with a loud thunderous sound. How can a particle the size of a grain of sand produce such a spectacular sight? The answer is the speed at which the meteoroid enters the earth's atmosphere. Many meteoroids travel at 60-70 kilometers per second. During its trip through the atmosphere, meteoroids collide with air molecules, knocking away materials and stripping electrons from the meteor. When the stripped atoms recapture electrons, light is emitted. The color of the light depends on the temperature and the material being 'excited.' Each day as many as 4 billion meteors, most minuscule in size, fall to earth. Their masses total several tons, seemingly a large amount, but negligible compared to the earth's total mass of 6,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 tons.

"Who Invented Zero?"
Many concepts that we all take for granted sounded strange and foreign when first introduced. Take the number zero for instance. Any first-grader can recognize and use zeros. They sound so logical and are such a basic part of how we do math. Zero equals nothing. What could be simpler? Yet early civilizations, even those that had a great proficiency with numbers, didn't have a concept for zero and didn't seem to miss it. Before the time of Christ, early Babylonians and Hindus from India began using a symbol that eventually evolved into our numeral 0. You can see the Babylonian symbol at the right and the zero that we use today comes from the Hindu symbol. Both cultures used it to tell one number from another. For example, to distinguish a 4 from a 400 they would use the symbol for zero twice. But they didn't use zero as a numeral. They wouldn't compute 400 - 0 = 400. This was an enormous conceptual leap nonetheless, for it led to our modern-day concept of place value. It is much easier to represent twenty bags of grain with the numeral 2 and the symbol 0 than as twenty separate marks as other cultures did. The concept of zero stayed pretty much to the peoples of the fertile triangle and the Indus peninsula. The Greeks and Romans didn't use zero. And neither did the post-Roman European cultures who continued to use Roman numerals. It wasn't until the Moor invasions of Northern Africa and Southern Europe that the concept of zero both as a place holder and a numeral began making its way into Europe. The Italian mathematician Fibonacci was one of the first to present the concept of zero to Europe. Slowly, over the centuries, the Europeans began using Arabic numbers, including zeros. They were reluctant adaptors, for they also continued to use Roman numerals. But zero's time had come and that's a good thing, for advancements in mathematics lean heavily on this symbol for nothing.

"Turning Oil Into Gas"
When you see all those cars at the gas station filling up with unleaded, you may not stop to think about how that gasoline got there. It wasn't pumped out of the ground in that form. The same goes for jet airplane fuel. It didn't start out that way--it took a long refining process to become fuel. You could never fly an airplane with gasoline, but the two products came from the same source: crude oil. Many petroleum products are used to make some sort of vehicle move: gasoline, diesel fuel, and jet fuel. Other products are made from petroleum, too. You might not be surprised to know that heating oil and asphalt are made from petroleum. But, what about crayons, floor polish, ice chests, mascara, volleyballs, guitar strings, roller skate wheels, bubblegum, and eyeglass frames? Most people don't realize that petroleum is the raw material for a lot more than gas. Crude oil comes out of the ground thick and dark, something like molasses. That's nothing like the gasoline that is pumped into your car! As it's refined, impurities are removed, and other products are allowed to settle out. There are three steps to the refining process: distilling, converting, and treating. Distilling: Oil is heated in large, tall towers. The extremely high temperatures break down the molecular chains of carbon in the oil, making it separate into layers. Heavier elements like sludge sink to the bottom, and the lighter gases such as propane float to the top. Suspended in the middle, you'll find the oil that will be made into gasoline and jet fuel. Just as cooking changes the characteristics of foods, 'cooking' the petroleum causes the oil to change its molecular structure, too. As the layers of light-to-heavy products separate, they're sent through pipes to different areas for further processing. Converting: To convert oils, heavy hydrocarbon molecules are 'cracked' into lighter, smaller molecules. This is done by causing a reaction between the oil and hydrogen under high pressure and heat. Cracking breaks 70 percent of the petroleum into gasoline and the rest into diesel and jet fuel. The products are then blended with other products to create different octane levels of gasoline. Conversion finishes by rearranging the oil. To rearrange oil, hydrogen is removed from lower octane gasoline. Treating: Treating petroleum removes even more impurities, such as sulfur and nitrogen. These can cause air pollution. Nitrogen goes through a process called water washing, which transforms it into ammonia, and that is turned into farm fertilizer. After distilling, converting, and treating the crude oil, it is blended to create the finished products that we recognize. Blends of several products help make sure that the gas or fuel is the same every time.

The Truth About Atomic And Hydrogen Bombs
In the 1930's Enrico Fermi and other scientists studying the properties of radioactive materials observed an interesting phenomenon. They found that the readings taken with a Geiger counter were lower when taken through water than when taken through air. It wasn't immediately obvious what this meant, but soon they realized that the medium of water moderated the radioactive decay process by slowing down the subatomic particles emitted by the radioactive material. This observation eventually allowed the construction of the first 'atomic pile', in which a chain reaction of decaying radioactive nuclei could be maintained in a controlled manner. In a nuclear chain reaction, a particle emitted from one atomic nucleus strikes other nuclei, causing them to split apart and emit particles that in their turn strike other nuclei, and so on in a continuing process. Without the intervention of a moderating medium, the process can go on in an uncontrolled manner. Each instance of a nucleus splitting apart and emitting a particle releases a certain amount of energy. When the amount of material present is more than a certain threshold quantity, or 'critical mass', so many particles and so much energy are released that the chain reaction runs wild. This is the process of 'nuclear fission' that defines an atomic bomb. The same process, but using a good moderating medium, allows the controlled release and capture of the same energy, which is the basis of the nuclear power generating station. The incident at Chernobyl some years ago stands as a grim reminder of the close kinship between the destructive force of the atomic bomb and the constructive generation of electricity in the nuclear reactor. In 1953, people watched the testing of the first hydrogen bomb with some fear. For the first time in history, a force was to be purposely unleashed over which man had no control whatsoever and that served no purpose other than destruction. There was a fear that the detonation of that first bomb would also initiate the destruction of the world. This fear was based on the exceedingly small but finite probability that the explosion of this bomb would initiate an unstoppable chain reaction in the most common element in the world: hydrogen. Their fears were perhaps not totally unfounded, as a rumor persists that the energy liberated by that bomb exceeded the very best theoretical calculations by as much as twenty percent, begging the question 'where did it come from?'. And yet, this amazingly destructive force also presents a source of hope for mankind. Research continues to look for a way to harness the incredible power produced by the nuclear fusion process. Success would mean abundant cheap energy for the whole world to use.

Ants Are Wimpy

It's common knowledge that ants can lift many times their own weight. We are frequently told they can lift 10, 20, or even 50 times their weight. It is most often stated something like this: an ant can lift over its head objects that weigh 20 times what the ant weighs. This is the equivalent of a 220 pound (100 kilogram) man lifting over 4,400 pounds (2000 kilograms) over his head! Seems incredible, doesn't it? That's like lifting a new VW Beetle, with five big men inside, over your head. A person who could do that would be a superman! Are ants superstrong then? No. The reason they can lift so much more than they weigh is because they are very small. If we were that small, we could do it too. A small animal lifting many times its weight is not the same as a large animal lifting many times its weight. The reason has to do with simple geometry and the characteristics of muscles. As an animal, or any object, grows in size, its volume and weight increase much faster than its height. If a 220 lb (100 kg) man were to grow ten times taller, his weight would increase by a factor of 1000 (the cube of his height). He would weigh 220,000 lbs (100,000 kg)! The strength of his muscles, on the other hand, would increase by the square of his height, or by a factor of 100. He would be 100 times stronger but 1000 times heavier. His muscle strength could never grow as fast as his weight. It's simple geometry. There is little reason, then, to compare the strength of small animals to big animals when it comes to how much more than their weight they can lift.



JK & SK - Homework Help For Junior & Senior Kinder Garden

  • Star fall high quality Kindergarten Curriculum - Where Children have fun learning to read
  • Coloring book Activities & Puzzles - Free download or print coloring book, play puzzle & much more

    GAMES & VIDEO

    1. Kids educational Games & video - Activities to improve the basic skills your child needs including reading, writing, spelling, math, science, logic and much more.
    ELEMENTARY - Homework Help For Grades 1 - 6

  • Homework Center - Multnomah County Library - Homework Help
  • EQOA - Assessments of Reading, Writing and Mathematics: Grade 1 to Grade 6
  • Mixed online tool - This Day In History, Quotation Of The Day, Today's Birthday, Word Of The Day, Dictionary, Article Of The Day and Word Game Called

    READING

    1. Children's Literature Web Guide - Massive and well-organized, with links to nearly every worthwhile children's reading site.
    WRITING

    1. 26 Golden Rules for Writing Well - Software, writing software & much more
    2. Common Errors in English - A concise list of the most common errors in English usage
    ARITHMETIC

    1. APlus Homework Helper - Homework Helper will allow you to input a problem and your answer. It will then figure out if your solution is correct
    2. Flashcards for Kids - This is a real working flash card application on the net!
    3. Grade 4 Math Excercise - Print the Follow-up Exercises and Play the math game
    4. Grade 5 Math Excercise - Print the Follow-up Exercises and Play the math game
    5. Grade 6 Math Excercise - Print the Follow-up Exercises and Play the math game

    JUNIOR HIGH - Homework Help For Grades 7-8

  • Infoplease Homework Central - Help homework answers history english math geography social studies science research internet encyclopedia on line dictionary almanac reference

    MATH

    1. Mathematics:World of Math Online - Free math lessons and math homework help from basic math to algebra, geometry and beyond. Students, teachers, parents, and everyone can find solutions to their math problems instantly.
    ENGLISH

    1. BJ Pinchbeck's Homework Helper in English - If you cann't find it here, you just can not find it.
    2. Google's Directory about Authors - Authors Categorized by Letter
    SOCIAL STUDIES

    1. The Ontario Curriculum:Canada - Social Studies,Grades 1 to 6; History and Geography, Grades 7 and 8. Ministry of Education / Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities
    2. Provinces and Territories of Canada - Province/Territory and Capital City Linked to official websites
    3. The 50 States of the United States - A quick resource for fun facts about each of the nation's 50 states, including when they achieved statehood
    SCIENCE

    1. Amateur Science - Amateur Science page: experiments, demonstrations
    2. Mad Scientist Network - The mad scientists from Washington University Medical School in St. Louis will answer questions in 25 areas of science, from anatomy and chemistry to zoology.
    3. StarChild: A Learning Center for Young Astronomers - introduction to the solar system and space exploration for youngsters.

    HIGH SCHOOL - Homework Help For Grades 9-12

  • High School Hub - Academic resources for high school students

    MATH

    1. Math2.org - source for all your math needs- geometry, algebra, trigonometry, calculus, and more.
    2. Math Archives - you will find links to various WWW resources on Mathematics. They are organized by topics.
    3. Math Homework Help - pre-algebra, algebra I & II, college algebra, geometry, trigonometry, pre-calculus, calculus
    ENGLISH

    1. On-Line Books Page - 5000+ Listings
    2. Shakespearean Homework Helper - Reference Links,Theater Links,Movie Links
    SOCIAL STUDIES

    1. THE CANADIAN SOCIAL STUDIES SUPER SITE - CANADA - GENERAL INFORMATION,CANADIAN BIOGRAPHIES ONLINE, GEOGRAPHY, MAP SKILLS AND SPACE AGE MAPS & much more
    2. General Resources for Teaching & Learning About Canada - Education is a series of Resource Guides for teachers, designed to enhance the availability of contemporary learning materials about Canada
    3. Constitution of the United States
    4. THOMAS - U.S. Congress - Legislative Information
    SCIENCE

    1. PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science
    2. Scientific American: Ask the Experts - the experts at Scientific American are available to answer what you really want to know
    3. SciCentral - science and engineering resources
    4. WebElements - Periodic Table

    COLLEGE - Research From A - Z

    1. World Lecture Hall - links to pages created by faculty worldwide who are using the Web to deliver class materials. For example, you will find course syllabi, assignments, lecture notes, exams, class calendars, multimedia textbooks, etc.

    Other Homework Links

    1. Astronomy Homework Help - Resource pages for researching astronomy on the Internet
    2. THE MATHEMATICS, COLORS, SHAPES & GEOMETRIC DEFINITION!
    3. Physical Science - Interactive Java Scripts -Learning Physical science just got easier!
    4. High School Homework Assistance Page - Links organized by class subject areas such as math, english composition and literature, social studies, foreign language, etc.
    5. Homework Central - Resources for k-12 schools & libraries
    6. Homework Help - King County Library
    7. Homework Help - KidInfo
    8. Homework Now - Online student assignment directory
    9. HomeworkSpot - Find the best K-12 homework resources organized by subject and grade-level
    10. World Heritage List - World heritage list has 788 properties in three categories ( 611 cultural, 154 natural and 23 mixed properties in 134 States Parties. )
    11. Jiskha Homework Help - The best homework help on the net questions, and open the door to a virtual encyclopedia of facts and figures
    12. Math Homework Help - college algebra, trigonometry, pre-calculus, calculus I & II
    13. MEGAlinks! for Students -For younger kids, parents & teachers
    14. Melody's Homework Help - About 3,000 pages of information. There's something for everyone here!
    15. Multnomah County (Oregon) Homework Center - Multnomah County Library: Civil Rights Resource Guide & also Lewis & Clark Resource Guide
    16. Schoolwork Ugh! - "Library closed? Need information for your homework assignments?"
    17. Study Web - comprehensive index that categorizes and reviews over 17,000 educational and reference Web sites.
    18. Time to Dewey Your Homework - Kanawha County (W.Va )Public Library suggests the following resources as a good places to start.
    19. WWW Virtual Library - a staggeringly comprehensive compilation of informational Web sites, arranged by topic.
    20. Yahooligans - Homework help, sports scores, "art soup" and games. Just like Yahoo only just for kids.
    21. HomeWork Helper - The best place to find homework helper information. Online Homework Help: Phonics, Book Reports,Essays & much more
    22. Education Place - Grade K-8
    23. Science Hunt - Start your science project here: From K to grade 12
    24. Kids Click - A huge search engine for kids. Web search for kids by librarians.

    TOOLS FOR RESEARCH
    1. The Stugy Skill Resource - some great information about cultivating good study skills
    2. Chem4Kids - Easy to navigate with site map or search engine and includes drop-down glossary for terms. Also includes data on atoms, elements and matter as well as biographies of famous chemists.
    3. Chemistry - the environment, biochemistry, and inorganic, organic, and medicinal chemistry
    4. Most Common Errors in English - site is dedicated to errors in usage
    5. Country Studies/Area Handbook - Library of Congress - online series presently contains studies of 85 countries
    6. Elements of Style - William Strunk, Jr. - ELEMENTARY RULES OF USAGE ENGLISH
    7. Fact Monster - Online Almanac, Dictionary, Encyclopedia, and Homework Help
    8. Finding Data on the Internet - Robert Niles' Journalism Help
    9. Guide for Writing Research Papers - An Introduction to Research Techniques
    10. Guide to Internet Research for High School and College Students - Specialized Research & Research and Writing Tools
    11. Infonation - United Nations - the most up-to-date statistical data for the Member States of the United Nations
    12. Public libraries of Canada - provinces & territories
    13. Public libraries of Europe - directory of sites broken down by country; libraries and related organizations are listed.
    14. OneLook Dictionaries - Search over 721,000 words in 156 dictionaries
    15. Online Writing Lab - The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world.
    16. Paradigm Online Writing Assistant - Writing ideas and activities. This online guide offers help in inventing, organizing, revising, and editing essays--of special interest to nonfiction writing students and instructors.
    17. Periodic Table of the Elements - A Resource for Elementary, Middle School, and High School Students.
    18. Proofreading Symbols and Abbreviations - Common Proofreading Symbols
    19. itools.com - Research, search & language tools all in one place
    20. Research Paper and the World-Wide Web - companion site to the book. Features an online study guide with chapter-specific exercises.
    21. Seven Steps of the Research Process- Research Strategy
    22. Study Guides and Strategies - Study Guides includes over 50 pages of summary guides to assist students in succeeding in their studies. Topics include time and stress management, test preparation, organizational strategies, reading and writing, and more. Translated into Arabic, Russian, Chinese, French, German, and Italian, the site should help students around the world.
    23. English Language, Grammar, Usage and Style - Huge Directory

    GENERAL REFERENCE - All Grades
    1. 4kids.org - designed for kids (and their parents) to find fun, educational, and safe spots to visit on the World Wide Web. Use your math skills to navigate through this bizarre world, dodging the thought police as you try to unravel the secrets of problem solving. A pop-up "mathulator" (calculator) helps you move from level to level.
    2. Awesome Library - K-12 Education Directory
    3. Ben's Guide to the U.S. Government for Kids - site introduces children to how the government works. It covers the U.S. Constitution, how laws are made, the branches of government, and citizenship. The site is divided into sections aimed at age groups K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12, with a separate section for parents and educators.
    4. BigChalk.com - Teachers, parents, and students can find a wide range of online support at this site including homework help, research tips, and study aids.
    5. Biology Project - Revision to make our learning materials accessible to people using assistive technologies.
    6. Biographical Dictionary - contains biographical information on over 18,000 people from ancient times to the present day
    7. Blackboard.com - At Blackboard.comSM, you can teach online for free, take distance-learning courses, utilize 239 discipline-specific resource centers and customize them to match your own classes, share tips and information with other online teachers and students, and much more.
    8. Blue Web'n Learning Center - a library of Blue Ribbon learning sites on the Web
    9. Calculators - Online Center - over 18,400 online calculators
    10. Electronic Research - American mathematical society
    11. Classroom Resources Activities for the Environment - Center for Environmental Education
    12. Homework helper for canadian students - Sites on the Homework Helper page are selected to be safe, fun and educational
    13. Convert It! - Convert just about anything to anything else. Over 5,000 units, and 50,000 conversions.
    14. Conversion Factors - The Metrics International System of Units
    15. Curious Math - tricks and rules for quickly calculating certain types of math problems. There's also some entertaining trivia and other math facts that are nice to slip into casual conversation. Some of it's Useful and some of it's Curious.
    16. Doctor's Guide to the Internet - Medical news, sites of the week, new drugs or indications, doctor's feedback, and an Internet-resource section. Extremely thorough.
    17. Education 4 Kids - "Once upon a time there was a dream that there would be a set of resources on the net that would exist solely for kids to use as an educational "center". A place where they could come and play drill games to better their skills and to learn. This is the place."
    18. Educational Hotlists - from the Franklin Institute
    19. Educational Index - an annotated guide to the best education-related sites on the Web.
    20. Elements of Style - William Strunk's classic on proper English usage
    21. EspanOle - The On-line Resource for Students and Teachers of Spanish!
    22. Explore Learning - ExploreLearning - Interact. Discover. Know!
    23. explorezone.com - animated earth, space and weather science
    24. FactMonster.com - Site for young students with info on everything from dragons and giants to pets and proverbs.
    25. Canada's SchoolNet - e-learning at the speed of life!
    26. Homework Links - Allchin.net - AllchinFiles provide free online javascript calculators and converters for unrestricted use
    27. Flashcards for Kids - Education 4 Kids is proud to announce the upgrading of Math Flashcards for Kids
    28. Franklin‚s Forecast - Information for students about various weather phenomenon and forecasting.
    29. From Stargazers to Starships - This high-school level tutorial focuses on three topics: Astronomy of the Earth‚s motion in space which includes information, and some experiments and projects that teach concepts about the calendar, seasons, Kepler‚s laws, building a sundial, and more;
    30. FunBrain.com - The Internet's #1 Education Site for K-8
    31. FunSchool - Funschool.com has loads of Java-based educational games for kids from preschool to sixth grade.
    32. General Chemistry Online - An introductory, searchable guide to chemistry that includes hyperlinked notes and guides for first semester chemistry, as well as articles. There is also a searchable glossary of over 900 terms, over 400 FAQs and a trivia quiz.
    33. Great Books of Western Civilization, The - From Mercer University, modeled after the course of study at St John's College, with links to the text of the Great Books
    34. Guide to Geography - About.com - resources include online world atlas, weekly articles about geography, annotated links to hundreds of sites, weekly quizzes, chats, and a free email newsletter.
    35. Historical Documents - The Avalon Project at Yale Law School
    36. How Things Work: The Physics of Everyday Life - ever wonder how something worked but didn't know whom to ask? Ask Louis A. Bloomfield, a physics professor at the University of Virginia.
    37. Human-Languages Page - best language links on the Internet
    38. Infomine - resources of relevance to faculty, students, and research staff at the university level
    39. Internet Classics Archive, The. - searchable collection of almost 400 classical Greek and Roman texts (in English translation) with user-provided commentary
    40. Internet Public Library
    41. Internet Scout - hundreds of announcements each week for the online resources most valuable to the education community
    42. Kid's Alamnac - Yahoo! has rendered a more kid user-friendly version of the popular Information Please Kids' Almanac.
    43. Internet Dectectives - A Middle School Social Studies & Library Media Project
    44. Kidinfo - A great way to find both fun stuff and information for completing your homework assignments.
    45. KidsClick! - "web guide and search tool for kids by librarians"
    46. Kids Did This - reports written by students
    47. LearningPlanet.com - Site for kids preschool through sixth grade to play free learning games online.
    48. LibrarySpot - a virtual library resource center for educators and students, librarians and their patrons, families, businesses and just about anyone exploring the Web for valuable research information
    49. Mad Scientist Network - Answers on everything from Anatomy to Zoology.
    50. Math.com - Free math homework help, math tutoring, math formulas and cool math stuff. Recommendations on books, calculators and products for students, parents, and teachers.
    51. The Math Forum Internet Mathematics Library - Mathematics Topics Algebra, Analysis, Arithmetic/Early Math, Calculus (Single Variable), Communicating Math, Differential Equations, Discrete Math & much more
    52. Math Help: Professor Freedman - a mixture of sound, humor, color, animation and graphics with lots of help for the "math anxious" student. Its aim is to give students a self-directed and entertaining way to learn basic math and algebra.
    53. Math in Daily Life - site shows how math helps us in our daily lives. It demonstrates math concepts such as probability, compounding, growth, geometry, and relationships in situations such as gambling, savings and investing, population growth, home decorating, and cooking.
    54. Math Word Problems for Children - over 2000 math word problems for children to learn from and enjoy. The pages are sorted by topic and level of difficulty. Each problem is designed to improve elementary and middle school students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
    55. Metric Conversion Card - Use this easy chart to convert inches to centimeters, pounds to kilograms, Fahrenheit to Celsius, and more.
    56. Mint, The - An economics and money management primer that addresses how to earn, budget, save, and invest money in today's society. Issues covered include the stock market, credit cards, inflation, income, expenses, interest rates, the relationship between higher education and earning potential, and more. Designed for middle school and high school students, with a section for teachers and parents
    57. Myschoolonline.com - "Welcome to the Web's largest community of local education sites."
    58. National Geographic Homework Help - Need to know how much hippos eat, what explorers Lewis and Clark packed in their first-aid kit, where Giza is, or how fireworks work? You‚ve come to the right place. Here are our most fact-filled features, perfect for reports, presentations, homeworkóor your curiosity.
    59. Neuroscience for Kids - Explore the nervous system, using experiments, activities, and games to learn about the brain, spinal cord, neurons, and senses. The site, which includes links to other sites and current events in the field, is appropriate to students of all ages.
    60. Numeracy Home Page, The - Links, puzzles, and other numeracy activities for adults designed to encourage interest in math.
    61. Nye Labs Online - Bill Nye the Science Guy's Web site is as lively and funny as his television show. Select Demo of the Day for a different daily science experiment you can do at home. In Home Demos are over 40 different demonstrations, complete with explanations of how things work.
    62. Old Farmer's Almanac - The original Farmer's Almanac since 1792
    63. OneLook Dictionaries - over 640,000 words in 109 dictionaries
    64. Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection -Online Maps of Current Interest
    65. Periodic Table - WebElements - WebElements Scholar Edition - for chemistry and other students at universities and schools
    66. Perseus Project - detailed searchable library of texts, translations, art and archaeology of Ancient Greece and Rome.
    67. Peterson's Guide to Colleges - information on undergraduate and graduate education in the US
    68. Physics Classroom, The - Learn basic physics concepts and review them in the Physics Tutorial. Check Your Understanding quizzes let you know you got it.
    69. Pi Pages, The - Think you know everything there is to know about pi? Try this trivia game and test your knowledge.
    70. Project Gutenburg - 'Fine literature digitally re-published'
    71. Quia Math - more than thirty math activities which include flashcards and a Concentration-style matching game. Topics range from basic addition to algebra terminology. Don't miss the Math Journey, where students can travel around the world as they practice addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and rounding at four levels.
    72. QuickMath - QuickMath is an automated service for answering common math problems over the internet. Think of it as an online calculator that solves equations and does all sorts of algebra and calculus problems - instantly and automatically!
    73. RHL School, The - subject areas are reading comprehension, math problem solving and computation, English basics, and reference skills. They are most appropriate for elementary through middle school students.
    74. Reference.com - searchable directories of newsgroups and mailing lists
    75. Research-It! - collection of online research tools. Search dictionaries, translate words, find quotations and more.
    76. Roberts Rules of Order - simplified version of Robert's Rules of Order, the standards for conducting meetings
    77. Roget's Internet Thesaurus
    78. SAT Question of the Day
    79. Science is Fun - the fun of science through home science activities, demonstration shows, videos, and books. Information about these and other science fun stuff is available here.
    80. School Express - an educational mall offering resources for schools, homeschools, teachers, parents and children. Links are given to hundreds of educational web sites. The Free Worksheets are especially popular for school and home use.
    81. Science News for Kids - This site is a resource for kids ages 9 to 14 and their teachers and parents.
    82. Scholarly Journals Distributed Via the World Wide Web - University of Houston Libraries
    83. Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators - a classified list of sites on the Internet found to be useful for enhancing curriculum and teacher professional growth
    84. Shakespeare - The Complete Works
    85. Space Place - Space science can be more fun than your children ever imagined. At The Space Place. Brought to us from the folks at NASA, kids can learn how to make and do "spacey things." Or pick up some "amazing facts" from Dr. Marc
    86. Statistical Abstract of the United States
    87. Loan Calculator - Everyday use..
    88. Statistics - How accurate is polling? Find out about statistics concepts through the case study of a fictional election.
    89. Study Guides and Strategies - Study Guides includes over 100 pages of summary guides to assist students in succeeding in their studies. Sections include learning and studying strategies, test preparation and taking, classroom and project participation, reading and writing skills, and more. Translated into 25 languages.
    90. Sunrise/Sunset Computation - Type in a city name and find out times for sunrise, sunset, and more
    91. Tennessee Bob's Famous French Links - guide links to over 7000 French language sites and French educational sites. Compiled by Bob Peckham, University of Tennessee-Martin.
    92. This is MEGA Mathematics - A project of the Los Alamos National Research Laboratory, this site has puzzles, a glossary, and special topics on math concepts such as infinity, graphs, and algorithms.
    93. Thomas: Legislative Information on the Internet - Congress Now: House Floor This Week | House Floor Now | Senate Schedule: Majority Minority
    94. U.S. Census & Map Data - This gazetteer is used to identify places to view with the Tiger Map Server
    95. U.S. and Puerto Rico Population Figures
    96. Virtual Body -The human brain, skeleton, human heart , digetive tract & much more..
    97. Virtual Hospital - University of Iowa
    98. Canadian Newspapers - Newspaper Depot!
    99. Visual Elements - featuring computer-generated images that interpret the 109 entries of the periodic table
    100. Visible Human Project - The US National Library of Medicine is creating complete, anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of the male and female human body.
    101. Vocabulary University - LEARNING ACTIVITIES: Separated into 3 levels of difficulty, these free interactive vocabulary puzzle and activity sessions use Latin and Greek "roots and cells" to help
    102. Webster Dictionary - the on-line version of Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition
    103. WebMath - the goal of this website is to provide you with an instant solution to the particular math problem you're having trouble solving.
    104. Weights & Measures - Methods of Measuring Overweight (excess fat) in the Body
    105. Who Represents You in Congress? - Project Vote Smart
    106. Population Calculator - See the world population today!
    107. Why Files: Science behind the news - University of Wisconsin, Board of Regents
    108. WorldClimate: Weather rainfall and temperature data - over 85,000 records of world climate data
    109. World Factbook CIA - CIA homepage
    110. World Population Clock - current population & calender based population
    111. World Rulers - This site contains lists of heads of state and heads of government (and, in certain cases, de facto leaders not occupying either of those formal positions) of all countries and territories, going back to about 1700 in most cases.
    112. World Wide Metric Calculators - Length, volume, pressure, Weight, Temperature & currency Calculator all in one place..
    113. Dictionary from around the world - Huge directory with all categories
    114. World Time ZonesCategory: A to Z
    115. World Time Zones Get time from anywhere, for any city!
    116. Z39.50 Gateway - a national and international (ISO 23950) standard defining a protocol for computer-to-computer information retrieval.
    117. 4 Kids.tv - Watch! Music! Buzz! Games! Fun! & Interact.
    118. CONVERTER/CALCULATOR/TRANSLATOR - Always handy & Always useful!
    119. Education Corner - Education that matters

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    DICTIONARY AND LANGUAGE RESOURCES

    1. 11 Rules of Writing - This site is a concise guide to some of the most commonly violated rules of writing.
    2. AGI GIS Dictionary - Revised Edition - includes definitions for 980 terms which either relate directly to GIS or which GIS users may come across in the course of their work.
    3. ARTFL Project - Project dedicated to French language including a 150 million word database of written French.
    4. A Word A Day - Give the Gift of Words
    5. Able Writer: A Rhetoric and Handbook - describes an English composition handbook that treats pre-writing, outlining, English grammar, usage, word choice, dictionaries, spelling, punctuation, and writing college research papers.
    6. Acronym Finder - a searchable database of over 141,000 acronyms/abbreviations and their meanings. Covers: common acronyms, computers, technology, government, telecommunications, and military acronyms, with an emphasis on Department of Defense (DoD), Air Force, Army, and Navy acronyms.
    7. Acronyms Used in the Computer Community
    8. Advice on Research and Writing
    9. Allwords.com - English dictionary with multi-lingual search
    10. Alta Vista: Translations - translate web pages or your own text from or to several languages.
    11. Alternative Dictionaries, The
    12. American Sign Language Fingerspelling - This site has a number of tools for novices and experts alike to help you become proficient at fingerspelling. For novices, site has a standard dictionary to learn the basic fingershapes. For fun, see what a word looks like with a fingerspelling converter. If you need to practice your receptive skills, try the interactive quiz.
    13. Anagram Server
    14. Antagonyms - words that have opposite meanings. For example "bad" can mean bad or good depending on usage.
    15. ArtLex - You will find definitions of more than 3,100 terms here, along with numerous illustrations, pronunciation notes, great quotations, and links to other resources on the Web.
    16. Babel - A Glossary of Computer Oriented Abbreviations and Acronyms.
    17. Barkley's Financial Glossary
    18. Basic Dictionary of American Sign Language Terms
    19. Basic Phrases: For Eastern European Languages
    20. Big List of Languages
    21. Biographical Dictionary - This dictionary covers more than 28,000 notable men and women who have shaped our world from ancient times to the present day.
    22. Bloomberg Financial Glossary - Over 6,000 entries with 15,000 links complied by Campbell R, Harvey, Fuqua School of Business, Duke University.
    23. Book of Cliches
    24. Book Terms & Glossary
    25. Bouviers Law Dictionary
    26. Cambridge Dictionaries Online - An online search engine allowing users to find definitions.
    27. Carnegie Mellon's Language Learning Resource Center
    28. Cognitive Science Dictionary
    29. Common Errors in English - site which simply and entertainingly explains a number of common spelling and usage errors in English.
    30. Constructed Human Languages
    31. Copy Editor - written for copy editors of magazines, newspapers, books, and newsletters.
    32. Language Software
    33. CyberItalian - interactive language course as well as culture, chat, and links.
    34. DOD Dictionary of Military Terms - All approved joint definitions are contained in Joint Publication 1-02, "DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms."
    35. Darling's Guide to Grammar
    36. Devil's Dictionary, The
    37. Dictionary.com- You can subscribe a service to recieve one word a day with meaning in your email.
    38. Dictionary of Carnivorous Plant Names
    39. Dictionary of Cell Biology
    40. Dictionary of Computing
    41. Dictionary of Computer Terms
    42. Dictionary of Diabetes - This dictionary by the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse defines words that are often used when people talk or write about diabetes. It is designed for people who have diabetes and for their families and friends.
    43. Dictionary of Difficult Words - index of over 13,900 difficult words from The Hutchinson Dictionary of Difficult Words. Use as a resource for increasing your vocabulary, for word games and puzzles, or just for enjoying and enriching your word power.
    44. Dictionary of Digital Camera Terms
    45. A Dictionary of Quotations - The 2,100 entries in this eminently researched collection form the constellation of collected wisdom in American political debate.
    46. Dictionary of Investment Terms: Investopedia - Over 3500 investment related terms available with search capacity.
    47. Dictionary of Financial Terms: Lightbulb Press - The financial terms you need to know in language you can understand.
    48. Dictionary of Management Jargon
    49. Dictionary of Math Terms for Kids - An animated, interactive dictionary for students which explains over 400 common mathematical terms in simple language.
    50. Dictionary of Mountain Bike Slang
    51. Dictionary of Music
    52. Dictionary of Orthodontic Terms
    53. Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names
    54. Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind - dictionary for those terms commonly used, defined, contested, and misunderstood in the philosophy of mind.
    55. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable - E. Cobham Brewer's 1898 collection of more than 18,000 entries that reveal the etymologies, trace the origins and otherwise catalog 'words with a tale to tell.'
    56. Dictionary of Scientific Quotations
    57. Dictionary of Symbolism - From abnormality to zodiac, this dictionary lists common literary symbols and their connotations.
    58. Dictionary of Units of Measurement - This dictionary, put together by Russ Rowlett, the Director of the Center for Mathematics and Science Education at the University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, will help you learn more about units of measurement.
    59. Dictionary of Units, A - an explanation of the principal systems of units, their history, standards, and conversion factors for changing from one to the other.
    60. Dictionaries on the Web
    61. Dictionary Society of North America
    62. DOT - Dictionary of Occupational Titles - It's the official dictionary of occupational titles. DOT's database is arranged alphabetically and can be read online or downloaded in one file.
    63. Duhaime's Law Dictionary - Researched, written in plain language and provided free of charge, to the WWLIA and its users, by lawyer Lloyd Duhaime.
    64. Elements of Style - By William Strunk
    65. Encarta World English Dictionary
    66. English as a Second Language
    67. English Grammar Links for ESL Students - includes references, exercises and quizzes.
    68. English/Cockney Rhyming Slang Dictionary
    69. English-French Dictionary and French-English Dictionaries
    70. English-Romanian and romanian-English Dictionaries
    71. English-Spanish Library and Information Studies Dictionary
    72. Esperanto-English and English-Esperant Dictionaries
    73. Ethnologue Database - on-line database of information about 6,500 languages. Includes alternate names, number of speakers, location, dialects, linguistic affiliation, and other sociolinguistic and demographic data.
    74. Etymology Sites»» Behind the Name | Etymologyically Speaking | Fun With Word Origins | Online Etymology Dictionary | Origin of Phrases | Phrase Finder | Roots of English: an Etymological Dictionary | Take Our Word for It | Word Detective | Word for Word | Word with You | Word Origins | Word Spy
    75. Name Translation - This site looks into the meaning and history of common first names.
    76. European Medical Dictionary - 1830 medical terms in Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish
    77. Evolution of Alphabets - exploration of early alphabets uses animation to demonstrate the transformation of written characters over time.
    78. Foreign Languages for Travelers
    79. Freedict.com - translating dictionaries from English to the following languages: Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, Hungarian, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swahili, and Swedish.
    80. FreeTranslation.com - FreeTranslation.com is a straight forward, easy-to-use site for rapid translations where you can get the 'gist' of foreign language text and web pages.
    81. Glossarist.com - a comprehensive searchable directory of Glossaries and Topical Dictionaries on 100s of subjects.
    82. Glossary of Anthropology - This searchable glossary provides definitions for terms in archaeology and physical and cultural anthropology.
    83. Glossary of Botanical Terms
    84. Glossary of Business Terms: ABC News
    85. Glossary of Business Terms: Washington Post
    86. Glossary of Cancer
    87. Glossary of Internet Terms
    88. Glossary of Investment Terms
    89. Glossary of Musical Terms
    90. Glossary of Poetic Terms
    91. Glossary of Solar Physics
    92. Glossary of Statistical Terms
    93. Glossary of Stock Market Terms: Nasdaq
    94. Glossary of Stock Traders Terms
    95. Glossary of Transplantation
    96. Glossary of Vision Terms
    97. Glossary of Weather Terms: Washington Post
    98. Glossary of Wireless Terms
    99. Grammar and Style Notes - by Jack Lynch
    100. Hacker's Dictionary
    101. Hawaiian Dictionary Online - Hawaiian-English and English-Hawaiian words.
    102. Hebrew Tutorial
    103. Heteronyms - words that are spelled identically but have different meanings when pronounced differently (e.g., wind or lead).
    104. HyperDictionary - This dictionary looks up the word and presents the definitions twice. First a clean definition then with every work in the definition hyperlinked.
    105. iLoveLanguages
    106. International Journal of Lexicography - concerned with all aspects of lexicography; focus is on dictionaries of the major European languages.
    107. InvestorWords - "With over 5,000 investing terms and 15,000 links between related words, InvestorWords is the most comprehensive financial glossary you'll find anywhere, online or off."
    108. Internet Dictionary: Net Lingo
    109. Jane's Defence Glossary - search over 20,000 defence-related acronyms and abbreviations in the Janes' database
    110. Japanese Language
    111. Japanese Online
    112. Jargon Dictionary
    113. King's English - by H.W. Fowler
    114. LangToLang.com - Free multilingual dictionary offers bidirectional, single and multiple words translation from/to: English, German, French, Spanish, Russian, Italian and Turkish language pairs.
    115. Languages - This BBC site provides resources to help you learn Spanish, French, German, Italian, and other languages through online lessons. You can also learn holiday phrases in 34 languages and more.
    116. Language and Culture: Transparent.com - covers more than thirty languages from Arabic to Finnish to Tagalog to Ukrainian. Learn Survival Phrases. Each language has about two dozen commonly used phrases - in the language, in English translation, and as a sound file.
    117. Languages on the Web - All about foreign languages, 30,000+ selected links to as many as 400 different languages, online language courses, language sites evaluation, free advice on how to study, plus the first Internet library of multilingual parallel texts to let you learn faster and more effectively.
    118. Languages Made Clear - Learn foreign languages for free online.
    119. Latin Dictionary and Grammar Aid
    120. Latin-English Dictionary
    121. Latin Language and Literature - This list of online resources provides links to Latin-English and multilingual dictionaries, study aides, and literature resources.
    122. Latin Phrases
    123. Latin Terms and Phrases in Mathematics
    124. Learn Spanish - A free, online tutorial for learning Spanish. Each lesson includes a cultural lesson both in English and Spanish (many with links to additional resources), practice exercises, and a test. Words in the lessons and the cultural files are linked to sound files so you can hear the correct pronunciation (requires the free Real Player plug-in.
    125. Legal Dictionary: FindLaw
    126. Lexical FreeNet - a directory of over 500 translation dictionaries and glossaries.
    127. Life Science Dictionary - 8300+ terms that deal with biochemistry, biotechnology, botany, cell biology and genetics. We also have some terms relating to ecology, limnology, pharmacology, toxicology and medicine.
    128. List of Dictionaries
    129. Literary Encyclopedia and Literary Dictionary - The aim of The Literary Encyclopedia and Literary Dictionary is to provide profiles of the lives and works of literary authors whose works are valued in the English language, and to do so within an electronic publication which will enable readers to explore literary history as never before.
    130. Little Explorers Picture Dictionary with Links - Fun and educational use of the Internet. Great place for kids to explore.
    131. LOGOS - Multilingual Dictionary
    132. Luciferous Logolepsy - a collection of over 9,000 obscure English words.
    133. Medical Dictionary - Site features encylopedic dictionary of over 9,000 classic and contemporary medical terms. Written entirely by physicians for both professional and non-professional readers site assists everyone concerned about health -- their health and the health of those that matter to them.
    134. Michaelis Soft Dicionários - variety of dictionaries online: English/Portugues; Spanish/Portuguese; Portuguese/German and Portuguese/French.
    135. Movie Terminology Glossary - definitions of terms and phrases frequently used in the world of movies, film, acting, and cinemagoing.
    136. Multilingual Dictionary of the Horse
    137. Multilingual Translation Dictionary
    138. Netdictionary - alphabetical reference guide to standard internet English, presented as a Java applet and as a set of HTML files.
    139. NETGLOS Glossary of Internet Terms - Chinese/English/French/German/Norwegian/Serbo-Croatian/Spanish
    140. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy - The 6,900 entries in this major new reference work form the touchstone of what it means to be not only just a literate American but an active citizen in our multicultural democracy.
    141. New User Dictionary
    142. Newbury House Online Dictionary - This online dictionary contains over 40,000 entries and is based on the best selling Newbury House Dictionary of American English. Providing simple and clear definitions, this online tool provides a wealth of sample sentences, idioms, and a wide array of cultural facts and figures.
    143. Nonverbal Dictionary of Gestures, Signs & Body Language Cues - Items in this Dictionary have been researched by anthropologists, archaeologists, biologists, linguists, psychiatrists, psychologists, semioticians, and others who have studied human communication from a scientific point of view. Every effort has been made to cite their work in the text.
    144. OneLook Dictionary Search - Look up a word or term in an Internet dictionary or glossary. Free search access to a frequently updated database of words, terms, names, and acronyms.
    145. On-line Chinese Tools - "These pages hope to provide tools to assist people in learning and using the beautiful Chinese language.
    146. On-line Dictionaries
    147. Online Spell checker
    148. On-Line Dictionary of Street Drug Slang - Indiana Prevention Resource Center
    149. On-Line English Grammar
    150. Online Etymology Dictionary
    151. Online Language Dictionaries and Translators
    152. On-line Medical Dictionary - over 46,000 terms relating to biology, chemistry, medicine, science or technology.
    153. Omniglot: A Guide to Writing Systems -This website provides a guide to over 150 different alphabets, syllabaries and other writing systems including a few you will find nowhere else. It also contains details of many of the languages written with those writing systems and links to a wide range of language-related resources, such as fonts, online dictionaries and online language courses.
    154. Oxford English Dictionary
    155. Oxymoron List - "The Largest List of Oxymorons Ever Collected Online.
    156. Paradigm Online Writing Assistant - guide to writing, composition, rhetoric, editing, and style.
    157. Phrase Finder - Phrases, sayings, idioms and cliches.
    158. Polish-Dictionary.com - This online English-Polish Dictionary contains approximately 2000 words, phrases, and expressions.
    159. Poker Glossary
    160. Purdue Univ. OWL - Online Writing Lab
    161. Rhyming Dictionary
    162. RhymeZone - site offers rhymes, synonyms, antonyms, related words, and other phonetic and semantic functions; it also has integrated cross-referencing of famous quotations, Shakespeare, Biblical passages, Mother Goose rhymes, and user-submitted poetry.
    163. Sampler: New Words in Meriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary - Once a decade, Merriam-Webster updates its best-selling dictionary includes 10,000 new words and more than 100,000 new meanings and revisions among its 225,000 definitions. This site presents an overview of news words added.
    164. Sanskrit-English & English-Sanskrit
    165. SharpWriter.com - "Whether you are a technical writer, a novelist, a student writing a term paper, a manager writing a memo, a journalist writing a travel article -- SharpWriter.Com is your resource! "
    166. Skeptic's Dictionary
    167. Spanish Dictionary - This English-Spanish/Spanish-English dictionary has over 56,508 entries with over 10,369 audio pronunciations.
    168. Specialty Dictionaries - Not even a native speaker knows all the words of his own language. Technical vocabulary is used only by specialists and so is not generally known by non-specialists. At this site you will find dictionaries and glossaries of specialized words in the English language, from Accounting to Wine.
    169. Spell Checker - Free online spell checker. Copy and paste a word or document up to 5000 characters to check and correct it online.
    170. SpellOnLine - Free international spell checking for any text or any web page.
    171. SpellWeb
    172. Swedish-English Dictionary
    173. Take Our Word For It - Archive of etymology questions
    174. TechDictionary.com - Search for thousands of computer and technology terms by term or keyword. Included are; computer, Internet and telecommunications terms, acronyms, emoticons or smilies, chat abbreviations, filename extensions, HTML tags, and domain suffixes.
    175. TheFreeDictionary.com - English, Medical, Legal, and Computer Dictionaries, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, a Literature Reference Library, and a Search Engine all in one!
    176. Tongue Twisters - the "world's largest collection of tongue twisters" features close to 2,000 international entries.
    177. Travlang's Translating Dictionaries - multilingual on-line dictionaries including German, French, Spanish, English, Dutch, Danish, Afrikaans, Esperanto, and more.
    178. Victorian London Dictionary - period resources guide to the social history of Victorian London.
    179. Visual Dictionary of Special Plane Curves - including description, history, formulas, properties, and links for each.
    180. Visual Thesaurus - Plumb Design - an exploration of sense relationships within the English language. By clicking on words, you follow a thread of meaning, creating a spatial map of linguistic associations.
    181. Voycabulary - lets you look up words in online dictionaries and thesauruses by entering in a url or paragraph and clicking on the words. Supports many languages and translations.
    182. Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary
    183. We Do Languages Come From - We don't ask ourselves where languages come from because they just seem to be there: French in France, English in England, Chinese in China, Japanese in Japan, and so forth. Yet if we go back only a few thousand years, none of these languages were spoken in their respective countries and indeed none of these languages existed anywhere in the world. Where did they all come from? This question is examined by this site by Exploratorium Magazine.
    184. Word2Word - Language Resources
    185. WordLab - "Nomenclature + Phraseology + Punmanship Exercises."
    186. Xrefer - This site provides reference material available on the web. Content includes a sizable selection available at no charge via a searchable database. A few of the 100 free titles include: Oxford Dictionary of Art, The Penguin Dictionary of Economics, The Penguin Dictionary of Music, Bloomsbury Thesaurus, Compact American Dictionary of Computer Words and much more.
    187. Xlation.com - More Than Words - this site maintains a directory of links to about 1,600 glossaries (search by language and subject area) and over sixty online grammars.
    188. Yahoo! - Grammar, Usage, and Style
    189. Ye Olde English Sayings
    190. yourDictionary.com - Over 800 dictionaries in 150 different languages.
    191. Web Translator - Easy to use
    192. Free Translator - Very easy to use navigation system.
    193. Latin English Dictionary at Babylon.com - The rich collection of English to Latin and Latin to English dictionaries features terminology and phraseology and the most widely used Latin words and expressions from the legal and scientific jargon.
    194. languagecourse.net - Many languages trace their routes to Europe, and the European Mediterranean. Even while there are vast differences between Latin, or English, or the Slavic languages, they all in some way trace their routes to a family of languages called the Indo-European languages.


    World heritage list has 788 properties in three categories ( 611 cultural, 154 natural and 23 mixed properties in 134 States Parties. )

    World Heritage List results by country:


    Afghanistan
    Minaret and Archaeological Remains of Jam (2002 )
    Cultural Landscape and Archaeological Remains of the Bamiyan Valley (2003 )

    Albania
    Butrint (1992 , 1999 )

    Algeria
    Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad (1980 )
    Tassili n'Ajjer (1982 )
    M'Zab Valley (1982 )
    Djémila (1982 )
    Tipasa (1982 )
    Timgad (1982 )
    Kasbah of Algiers (1992 )

    Andorra
    Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley (2000 )

    Argentina
    Los Glaciares (1981 )
    Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis: San Ignacio Mini, Santa Ana, Nuestra Señora de Loreto and Santa Maria Mayor (Argentina), Ruins of Sao Miguel das Missoes (Brazil) (1983 , 1984 ) *
    Iguazu National Park (1984 )
    Cueva de las Manos, Río Pinturas (1999 )
    Península Valdés (1999 )
    Ischigualasto / Talampaya Natural Parks (2000 )
    Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba (2000 )
    Quebrada de Humahuaca (2003)

    Armenia
    Monasteries of Haghpat and Sanahin (1996 , 2000 )
    Cathedral and Churches of Echmiatsin and the Archaeological Site of Zvartnots (2000 )
    Monastery of Geghard and the Upper Azat Valley (2000 )

    Australia
    Kakadu National Park (1981 , 1987, 1992 )
    Great Barrier Reef (1981 )
    Willandra Lakes Region (1981 )
    Tasmanian Wilderness (1982 , 1989 )
    Lord Howe Island Group (1982 )
    Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves (Australia) (1986 , 1994 )
    Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park (1987 , 1994 )
    Wet Tropics of Queensland (1988 )
    Shark Bay, Western Australia (1991 )
    Fraser Island (1992 )
    Australian Fossil Mammal Sites (Riversleigh/ Naracote) (1994 )
    Heard and McDonald Islands (1997 )
    Macquarie Island (1997 )
    Greater Blue Mountains Area (2000 )
    Purnululu National Park (2003 )
    Royal Exhibition Building and Carlton Gardens (2004 )

    Austria
    Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg (1996 )
    Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn (1996 )
    Hallstatt-Dachstein Salzkammergut Cultural Landscape (1997 )
    Semmering Railway (1998 )
    City of Graz - Historic Centre (1999 )
    Wachau Cultural Landscape (2000 )
    Historic Centre of Vienna (2001 )
    Fertö/Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape (2001 ) *

    Azerbaijan
    Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower (2000 )

    Bangladesh
    Historic Mosque City of Bagerhat (1985 )
    Ruins of the Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur (1985 )
    The Sundarbans (1997 )

    Belarus
    Belovezhskaya Pushcha / Bialowieza Forest (1979 , 1992 ) *
    Mir Castle Complex (2000 )

    Belgium
    Flemish Béguinages (1998 )
    The Four Lifts on the Canal du Centre and their Environs, La Louvière and Le Roeulx (Hainault) (1998 )
    Grand-Place, Brussels (1998 )
    Belfries of Flanders and Wallonia (1999 )
    Major Town Houses of the Architect Victor Horta (Brussels) (2000 )
    Neolithic Flint Mines at Spiennes (Mons) (2000 )
    Notre-Dame Cathedral in Tournai (2000 )
    Historic Centre of Brugge (2000 )

    Belize
    Belize Barrier-Reef Reserve System (1996 )

    Benin
    Royal Palaces of Abomey (1985 )

    Bolivia
    City of Potosi (1987 )
    Jesuit Missions of the Chiquitos (1990 )
    Historic City of Sucre (1991 )
    Fuerte de Samaipata (1998 )
    Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture (2000 )
    Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (2000 )

    Botswana
    Tsodilo (2001 )

    Brazil
    Historic Town of Ouro Preto (1980 )
    Historic Centre of the Town of Olinda (1982 )
    Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis: San Ignacio Mini, Santa Ana, Nuestra Señora de Loreto and Santa Maria Mayor (Argentina), Ruins of Sao Miguel das Missoes (Brazil) (1983 , 1984 ) *
    Historic Centre of Salvador de Bahia (1985 )
    Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Congonhas (1985 )
    Iguaçu National Park (1986 )
    Brasilia (1987 )
    Serra da Capivara National Park (1991 )
    Historic Centre of São Luis (1997 )
    Historic Centre of the Town of Diamantina (1999 )
    Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Reserves (1999 )
    Atlantic Forest Southeast Reserves (1999 )
    Central Amazon Conservation Complex (2000 , 2003 )
    Pantanal Conservation Area (2000 )
    Brazilian Atlantic Islands: Fernando de Noronha and Atol das Rocas Reserves (2001 )
    Cerrado Protected Areas: Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks (2001 )
    Historic Centre of the Town of Goiás (2001 )

    Bulgaria
    Boyana Church (1979 )
    Madara Rider (1979 )
    Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak (1979 )
    Rock-hewn Churches of Ivanovo (1979 )
    Rila Monastery (1983 )
    Ancient City of Nessebar (1983 )
    Srebarna Nature Reserve (1983 )
    Pirin National Park (1983 )
    Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari (1985 )

    Cambodia
    Angkor (1992 )

    Cameroon
    Dja Faunal Reserve (1987 )

    Canada
    Nahanni National Park (1978 )
    L’Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site (1978 )
    Dinosaur Provincial Park (1979 )
    Kluane/Wrangell-St. Elias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek (1979 , 1992, 1994 ) *
    SGaang Gwaii (Anthony Island) (1981 )
    Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump (1981 )
    Wood Buffalo National Park (1983 )
    Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks (1984 , 1990 )
    Historic District of Québec (1985 )
    Gros Morne National Park (1987 )
    Waterton Glacier International Peace Park (1995 ) *
    Old Town Lunenburg (1995 )
    Miguasha National Park (1999 )
    Central African Republic
    Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park (1988 )

    Chile
    Rapa Nui National Park (1995 )
    Churches of Chiloé (2000 )
    Historic Quarter of the Seaport City of Valparaíso (2003 )

    China
    Mount Taishan (1987 )
    The Great Wall (1987 )
    Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang (1987 , 2004 )
    Mogao Caves (1987 )
    Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor (1987 )
    Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian (1987 )
    Mount Huangshan (1990 )
    Jiuzhaigou Valley Scenic and Historic Interest Area (1992 )
    Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area (1992 )
    Wulingyuan Scenic and Historic Interest Area (1992 )
    Mountain Resort and its Outlying Temples, Chengde (1994 )
    Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion in Qufu (1994 )
    Ancient Building Complex in the Wudang Mountains (1994 )
    Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace, Lhasa (1994 , 2000, 2001 )
    Lushan National Park (1996 )
    Mount Emei Scenic Area, including Leshan Giant Buddha Scenic Area (1996 )
    Old Town of Lijiang (1997 )
    Ancient City of Ping Yao (1997 )
    Classical Gardens of Suzhou (1997 , 2000 )
    Summer Palace, an Imperial Garden in Beijing (1998 )
    Temple of Heaven: an Imperial Sacrificial Altar in Beijing (1998 )
    Mount Wuyi (1999 )
    Dazu Rock Carvings (1999 )
    Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System (2000 )
    Ancient Villages in Southern Anhui - Xidi and Hongcun (2000 )
    Longmen Grottoes (2000 )
    Imperial Tombs of the Ming and Qing Dynasties (2000 , 2003,2004 )
    Yungang Grottoes (2001 )
    Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas (2003 )
    Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom (2004 )

    Colombia
    Port, Fortresses and Group of Monuments, Cartagena (1984 )
    Los Katios National Park (1994 )
    Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox (1995 )
    National Archeological Park of Tierradentro (1995 )
    San Agustín Archeological Park (1995 )

    Costa Rica
    Talamanca Range-La Amistad Reserves / La Amistad National Park (1983 , 1990 ) *
    Cocos Island National Park (1997 , 2002 )
    Area de Conservación Guanacaste (1999 , 2004 )

    Côte d'Ivoire
    Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (1981 , 1982 ) *
    Taï National Park (1982 )
    Comoé National Park (1983 )

    Croatia
    Old City of Dubrovnik (1979 , 1994 )
    Historical Complex of Split with the Palace of Diocletian (1979 )
    Plitvice Lakes National Park (1979 , 2000 )
    Episcopal Complex of the Euphrasian Basilica in the Historic Centre of Porec (1997 )
    Historic City of Trogir (1997 )
    The Cathedral of St. James in Sibenik (2000 )

    Cuba
    Old Havana and its Fortifications (1982 )
    Trinidad and the Valley de los Ingenios (1988 )
    San Pedro de la Roca Castle, Santiago de Cuba (1997 )
    Viñales Valley (1999 )
    Desembarco del Granma National Park (1999 )
    Archaeological Landscape of the First Coffee Plantations in the Southeast of Cuba (2000 )
    Alejandro de Humboldt National Park (2001 )

    Cyprus
    Paphos (1980 )
    Painted Churches in the Troodos Region (1985 , 2001 )
    Choirokoitia (1998 )

    Czech Republic
    Historic Centre of Prague (1992 )
    Historic Centre of Ceský Krumlov (1992 )
    Historic Centre of Telc (1992 )
    Pilgrimage Church of St John of Nepomuk at Zelená Hora (1994 )
    Kutná Hora: Historical Town Centre with the Church of St Barbara and the Cathedral of Our Lady at Sedlec (1995 )
    Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape (1996 )
    Gardens and Castle at Kromeríž (1998 )
    Holašovice Historical Village Reservation (1998 )
    Litomyšl Castle (1999 )
    Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc (2000 )
    Tugendhat Villa in Brno (2001 )
    Jewish Quarter and St Procopius' Basilica in Trebíc (2003 )

    Democratic People's Republic of Korea
    Complex of Koguryo Tombs (2004 )
    Democratic Republic of the Congo
    Virunga National Park (1979 )
    Garamba National Park (1980 )
    Kahuzi-Biega National Park (1980 )
    Salonga National Park (1984 )
    Okapi Wildlife Reserve (1996 )

    Denmark
    Jelling Mounds, Runic Stones and Church (1994 )
    Roskilde Cathedral (1995 )
    Kronborg Castle (2000 )
    Ilulissat Icefjord (2004 )

    Dominica
    Morne Trois Pitons National Park (1997 )

    Dominican Republic
    Colonial City of Santo Domingo (1990 )

    Ecuador
    Galapagos Islands (1978 , 2001 )
    City of Quito (1978 )
    Sangay National Park (1983 )
    Historic Centre of Santa Ana de los Ríos de Cuenca (1999 )

    Egypt
    Memphis and its Necropolis - the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur (1979 )
    Ancient Thebes with its Necropolis (1979 )
    Nubian Monuments from Abu Simbel to Philae (1979 )
    Islamic Cairo (1979 )
    Abu Mena (1979 )
    Saint Catherine Area (2002 )

    El Salvador
    Joya de Ceren Archaeoloical Site (1993 )

    Estonia
    Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn (1997 )

    Ethiopia
    Rock-hewn Churches, Lalibela (1978 )
    Simien National Park (1978 )
    Fasil Ghebbi, Gondar Region (1979 )
    Lower Valley of the Awash (1980 )
    Tiya (1980 )
    Aksum (1980 )
    Lower Valley of the Omo (1980 )

    Finland
    Old Rauma (1991 )
    Fortress of Suomenlinna (1991 )
    Petäjävesi Old Church (1994 )
    Verla Groundwood and Board Mill (1996 )
    Bronze Age Burial Site of Sammallahdenmäki (1999 )

    France
    Mont-Saint-Michel and its Bay (1979 )
    Chartres Cathedral (1979 )
    Palace and Park of Versailles (1979 )
    Vézelay, Church and Hill (1979 )
    Decorated Grottoes of the Vézère Valley (1979 )
    Palace and Park of Fontainebleau (1981 )
    Amiens Cathedral (1981 )
    Roman Theatre and its Surroundings and the "Triumphal Arch" of Orange (1981 )
    Roman and Romanesque Monuments of Arles (1981 )
    Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay (1981 )
    Royal Saltworks of Arc-et-Senans (1982 )
    Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place d'Alliance in Nancy (1983 )
    Church of Saint-Savin sur Gartempe (1983 )
    Cape Girolata, Cape Porto, Scandola Nature Reserve and the Piana Calanches in Corsica (1983 )
    Pont du Gard (Roman Aqueduct) (1985 )
    Strasbourg - Grande île (1988 )
    Paris, Banks of the Seine (1991 )
    Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Former Abbey of Saint-Remi and Palace of Tau, Reims (1991 )
    Bourges Cathedral (1992 )
    Historic Centre of Avignon (1995 )
    Canal du Midi (1996 )
    Historic Fortified City of Carcassonne (1997 )
    Pyrénées - Mont Perdu (1997 , 1999 ) *
    Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France (1998 )
    Historic Site of Lyons (1998 )
    Jurisdiction of Saint-Emilion (1999 )
    The Loire Valley between Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes (2000 ) Provins, Town of Medieval Fairs (2001 )

    Gambia
    James Island and Related Sites (2003 )

    Georgia
    City-Museum Reserve of Mtskheta (1994 )
    Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery (1994 )
    Upper Svaneti (1996 )

    Germany
    Aachen Cathedral (1978 )
    Speyer Cathedral (1981 )
    Würzburg Residence with the Court Gardens and Residence Square (1981 )
    Pilgrimage Church of Wies (1983 )
    Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl (1984 )
    St. Mary's Cathedral and St. Michael's Church at Hildesheim (1985 )
    Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St. Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier (1986 )
    Hanseatic City of Lübeck (1987 )
    Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin (1990 , 1992, 1999 )
    Abbey and Altenmünster of Lorsch (1991 )
    Mines of Rammelsberg and Historic Town of Goslar (1992 )
    Maulbronn Monastery Complex (1993 )
    Town of Bamberg (1993 )
    Collegiate Church, Castle, and Old Town of Quedlinburg (1994 )
    Völklingen Ironworks (1994 )
    Messel Pit Fossil Site (1995 )
    Cologne Cathedral (1996 )
    Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Dessau (1996 )
    Luther Memorials in Eisleben and Wittenberg (1996 )
    Classical Weimar (1998 )
    Museumsinsel (Museum Island), Berlin (1999 )
    Wartburg Castle (1999 )
    Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz (2000 )
    Monastic Island of Reichenau (2000 )
    Zollverein Coal Mine Industrial Complex in Essen (2001 )
    Upper Middle Rhine Valley (2002 )
    Historic Centres of Stralsund and Wismar (2002 )
    Town Hall and Roland on the Marketplace of Bremen (2004 )
    Muskauer Park / Park Muzakowski (2004 ) * Dresden Elbe Valley (2004 )

    Ghana
    Forts and Castles, Volta Greater Accra, Central and Western Regions (1979 ) Asante Traditional Buildings (1980 )

    Greece
    Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae (1986 )
    Archaeological Site of Delphi (1987 )
    Acropolis, Athens (1987 )
    Mount Athos (1988 )
    Meteora (1988 )
    Paleochristian and Byzantine Monuments of Thessalonika (1988 )
    Archaeological Site of Epidaurus (1988 )
    Medieval City of Rhodes (1988 )
    Mystras (1989 )
    Archaeological Site of Olympia (1989 )
    Delos (1990 )
    Monasteries of Daphni, Hossios Luckas and Nea Moni of Chios (1990 )
    Pythagoreion and Heraion of Samos (1992 )
    Archaeological Site of Vergina (1996 )
    Archaeological Sites of Mycenae and Tiryns (1999 )
    Historic Centre (Chorá) with the Monastery of Saint John "the Theologian" and the Cave of the Apocalypse on the Island of Pátmos (1999 )

    Guatemala
    Tikal National Park (1979 )
    Antigua Guatemala (1979 )
    Archaeological Park and Ruins of Quirigua (1981 )
    Guinea Mount Nimba Strict Nature Reserve (1981 , 1982 ) *

    Haiti
    National History Park - Citadel, Sans Souci, Ramiers (1982 )
    Holy See Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura (1980 , 1990 ) *
    Vatican City (1984 )

    Honduras
    Maya Site of Copan (1980 )
    Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (1982 )

    Hungary
    Budapest, including the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrássy Avenue (1987 , 2002 )
    Old Village of Hollókö and its Surroundings (1987 )
    Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst (1995 , 2000 ) *
    Millenary Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma and its Natural Environment (1996 )
    Hortobágy National Park - the Puszta (1999 )
    Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae) (2000 )
    Fertö/Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape (2001 ) *
    Tokaj Wine Region Historic Cultural Landscape (2002 )

    Iceland
    Þingvellir National Park (2004 )

    India
    Ajanta Caves (1983 )
    Ellora Caves (1983 )
    Agra Fort (1983 )
    Taj Mahal (1983 )
    Sun Temple, Konarak (1984 )
    Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram (1984 )
    Kaziranga National Park (1985 )
    Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (1985 )
    Keoladeo National Park (1985 )
    Churches and Convents of Goa (1986 )
    Khajuraho Group of Monuments (1986 )
    Group of Monuments at Hampi (1986 )
    Fatehpur Sikri (1986 )
    Group of Monuments at Pattadakal (1987 )
    Elephanta Caves (1987 )
    Great Living Chola Temples (1987 , 2004 )
    Sundarbans National Park (1987 )
    Nanda Devi National Park (1988 )
    Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989 )
    Humayun's Tomb, Delhi (1993 )
    Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi (1993 )
    Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (DHR) (1999 )
    Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya (2002 )
    Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003 )
    Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park (2004 )
    Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) (2004 )

    Indonesia
    Borobudur Temple Compounds (1991 )
    Ujung Kulon National Park (1991 )
    Komodo National Park (1991 )
    Prambanan Temple Compounds (1991 )
    Sangiran Early Man Site (1996 )
    Lorentz National Park (1999 )
    Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (2004 )
    Iran (Islamic Republic of)
    Tchogha Zanbil (1979 )
    Persepolis (1979 )
    Meidan Emam, Esfahan (1979 )
    Takht-e Soleyman (2003 )
    Pasargadae (2004 )
    Bam and its Cultural Landscape (2004 )

    Iraq
    Hatra (1985 )
    Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat) (2003 )

    Ireland
    Archaeological Ensemble of the Bend of the Boyne (1993 )
    Skellig Michael (1996 )

    Israel
    Masada (2001 )
    Old City of Acre (2001 )
    White City of Tel-Aviv -- the Modern Movement (2003 )

    Italy
    Rock Drawings in Valcamonica (1979 )
    Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura (1980 , 1990 ) *
    Church and Dominican Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie with "The Last Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci (1980 )
    Historic Centre of Florence (1982 )
    Venice and its Lagoon (1987 )
    Piazza del Duomo, Pisa (1987 )
    Historic Centre of San Gimignano (1990 )
    I Sassi di Matera (1993 )
    City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto (1994 , 1996 )
    Historic Centre of Siena (1995 )
    Historic Centre of Naples (1995 )
    Crespi d'Adda (1995 )
    Ferrara, City of the Renaissance, and its Po Delta (1995 , 1999 )
    Castel del Monte (1996 )
    The Trulli of Alberobello (1996 )
    Early Christian Monuments of Ravenna (1996 )
    Historic Centre of the City of Pienza (1996 )
    18th-Century Royal Palace at Caserta, with the Park, the Aqueduct of Vanvitelli, and the San Leucio Complex (1997 )
    Residences of the Royal House of Savoy (1997 )
    Botanical Garden (Orto Botanico), Padua (1997 )
    Portovenere, Cinque Terre, and the Islands (Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto) (1997 )
    Cathedral, Torre Civica and Piazza Grande, Modena (1997 )
    Archaeological Areas of Pompei, Herculaneum and Torre Annunziata (1997 )
    Costiera Amalfitana (1997 )
    Archaeological Area of Agrigento (1997 )
    Villa Romana del Casale (1997 )
    Su Nuraxi di Barumini (1997 )
    Archaeological Area and the Patriarchal Basilica of Aquileia (1998 )
    Historic Centre of Urbino (1998 )
    Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park with the Archeological sites of Paestum and Velia, and the Certosa di Padula (1998 )
    Villa Adriana (Tivoli) (1999 )
    City of Verona (2000 )
    Isole Eolie (Aeolian Islands) (2000 )
    Assisi, the Basilica of San Francesco and Other Franciscan Sites (2000 )
    Villa d'Este, Tivoli (2001 )
    Late Baroque Towns of the Val di Noto (South-eastern Sicily) (2002 )
    Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy (2003 )
    Val d'Orcia (2004 )
    Etruscan Necropolises of Cerveteri and Tarquinia (2004 )

    Japan
    Buddhist Monuments in the Horyu-ji Area (1993 )
    Himeji-jo (1993 )
    Yakushima (1993 )
    Shirakami-Sanchi (1993 )
    Historic Monuments of Ancient Kyoto (Kyoto, Uji and Otsu Cities) (1994 )
    Historic Villages of Shirakawa-go and Gokayama (1995 )
    Hiroshima Peace Memorial (Genbaku Dome) (1996 )
    Itsukushima Shinto Shrine (1996 )
    Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara (1998 )
    Shrines and Temples of Nikko (1999 )
    Gusuku Sites and Related Properties of the Kingdom of Ryukyu (2000 )
    Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range (2004 )
    Jerusalem (Site proposed by Jordan)
    Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls (1981 )

    Jordan
    Petra (1985 )
    Quseir Amra (1985 )
    Um er-Rasas (Kastrom Mefa'a) (2004 )
    Kazakhstan
    Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi (2003 )
    Petroglyphs within the Archaeological Landscape of Tamgaly (2004 )

    Kenya
    Mount Kenya National Park / Natural Forest (1997 )
    Lake Turkana National Parks (1997 , 2001 )
    Lamu Old Town (2001 )
    Lao People's Democratic Republic
    Town of Luang Prabang (1995 )
    Vat Phou and Associated Ancient Settlements within the Champasak Cultural Landscape (2001 )

    Latvia
    Historic Centre of Riga (1997 )

    Lebanon
    Anjar (1984 )
    Baalbek (1984 )
    Byblos (1984 )
    Tyre (1984 )
    Ouadi Qadisha (the Holy Valley) and the Forest of the Cedars of God (Horsh Arz el-Rab) (1998 )

    Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
    Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna (1982 )
    Archaeological Site of Sabratha (1982 )
    Archaeological Site of Cyrene (1982 )
    Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus (1985 )
    Old Town of Ghadames (1986 )

    Lithuania
    Vilnius Historic Centre (1994 )
    Curonian Spit (2000 ) *
    Kernave Archaeological Site (Cultural Reserve of Kernave) (2004 )

    Luxembourg
    City of Luxembourg: its Old Quarters and Fortifications (1994 )

    Madagascar
    Tsingy de Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve (1990 )
    Royal Hill of Ambohimanga (2001 )

    Malawi
    Lake Malawi National Park (1984 )

    Malaysia
    Kinabalu Park (2000 )
    Gunung Mulu National Park (2000 )

    Mali
    Old Towns of Djenné (1988 )
    Timbuktu (1988 )
    Cliff of Bandiagara (Land of the Dogons) (1989 )
    Tomb of Askia (2004 )

    Malta
    Hal Saflieni Hypogeum (1980 )
    City of Valletta (1980 )
    Megalithic Temples of Malta (1980 , 1992 )

    Mauritania
    Banc d'Arguin National Park (1989 )
    Ancient Ksour of Ouadane, Chinguetti, Tichitt and Oualata (1996 )

    Mexico
    Sian Ka'an (1987 )
    Pre-Hispanic City and National Park of Palenque (1987 )
    Historic Centre of Mexico City and Xochimilco (1987 )
    Pre-Hispanic City of Teotihuacan (1987 )
    Historic Centre of Oaxaca and Archaeological Site of Monte Albán (1987 )
    Historic Centre of Puebla (1987 )
    Historic Town of Guanajuato and Adjacent Mines (1988 )
    Pre-Hispanic City of Chichen-Itza (1988 )
    Historic Centre of Morelia (1991 )
    El Tajin, Pre-Hispanic City (1992 )
    Whale Sanctuary of El Vizcaino (1993 )
    Historic Centre of Zacatecas (1993 )
    Rock Paintings of the Sierra de San Francisco (1993 )
    Earliest 16th-Century Monasteries on the Slopes of Popocatepetl (1994 )
    Pre-Hispanic Town of Uxmal (1996 )
    Historic Monuments Zone of Querétaro (1996 )
    Hospicio Cabañas, Guadalajara (1997 )
    Archeological Zone of Paquimé, Casas Grandes (1998 )
    Historic Monuments Zone of Tlacotalpan (1998 )
    Historic Fortified Town of Campeche (1999 )
    Archaeological Monuments Zone of Xochicalco (1999 )
    Ancient Maya City of Calakmul, Campeche (2002 )
    Franciscan Missions in the Sierra Gorda of Querétaro (2003 )
    Luis Barragán House and Studio (2004 )

    Mongolia
    Uvs Nuur Basin (2003 ) *
    Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape (2004 )

    Morocco
    Medina of Fez (1981 )
    Medina of Marrakesh (1985 )
    Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou (1987 )
    Historic City of Meknes (1996 )
    Archaeological Site of Volubilis (1997 )
    Medina of Tétouan (formerly known as Titawin) (1997 )
    Medina of Essaouira (formerly Mogador) (2001 )
    Portuguese City of Mazagan (El Jadida) (2004 )

    Mozambique
    Island of Mozambique (1991 )

    Nepal
    Sagarmatha National Park (1979 )
    Kathmandu Valley (1979 )
    Royal Chitwan National Park (1984 )
    Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha (1997 )

    Netherlands
    Schokland and Surroundings (1995 )
    Defence Line of Amsterdam (1996 )
    Mill Network at Kinderdijk-Elshout (1997 )
    Historic Area of Willemstad, Inner City and Harbour, Netherlands Antilles (1997 )
    Ir.D.F. Woudagemaal (D.F. Wouda Steam Pumping Station) (1998 )
    Droogmakerij de Beemster (Beemster Polder) (1999 )
    Rietveld Schröderhuis (Rietveld Schröder House) (2000 )

    New Zealand
    Tongariro National Park (1990 , 1993 )
    Te Wahipounamu - South West New Zealand (1990 )
    New Zealand Sub-Antarctic Islands (1998 )

    Nicaragua
    Ruins of León Viejo (2000 )

    Niger
    Air and Ténéré Natural Reserves (1991 )
    W National Park of Niger (1996 )

    Nigeria
    Sukur Cultural Landscape (1999 )

    Norway
    Urnes Stave Church (1979 )
    Bryggen (1979 )
    Røros (1980 )
    Rock Drawings of Alta (1985 )
    Vegaøyan -- The Vega Archipelago (2004 )

    Oman
    Bahla Fort (1987 )
    Archaeological Sites of Bat, Al-Khutm and Al-Ayn (1988 )
    Arabian Oryx Sanctuary (1994 )
    The Frankincense Trail (2000 )

    Pakistan
    Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro (1980 )
    Taxila (1980 )
    Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Neighbouring City Remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol (1980 )
    Historical Monuments of Thatta (1981 )
    Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (1981 ) Rohtas Fort (1997 )

    Panama
    Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo (1980 )
    Darien National Park (1981 )
    Talamanca Range-La Amistad Reserves / La Amistad National Park (1983 , 1990 ) *
    Archaeological Site of Panamá Viejo and Historic District of Panamá (1997 , 2003 )

    Paraguay
    Jesuit Missions of La Santisima Trinidad de Parana and Jesus de Tavarangue (1993 )

    Peru
    City of Cuzco (1983 )
    Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (1983 )
    Chavin (Archaeological Site) (1985 )
    Huascaran National Park (1985 )
    Chan Chan Archaelogical Zone (1986 )
    Manu National Park (1987 )
    Historic Centre of Lima (1988 , 1991 )
    Rio Abiseo National Park (1990 , 1992 )
    Lines and Geoglyphs of Nasca and Pampas de Jumana (1994 )
    Historical Centre of the City of Arequipa (2000 )

    Philippines
    Tubbataha Reef Marine Park (1993 )
    Baroque Churches of the Philippines (1993 )
    Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras (1995 )
    Historic Town of Vigan (1999 )
    Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park (1999 )

    Poland
    Cracow's Historic Centre (1978 )
    Wieliczka Salt Mine (1978 )
    Auschwitz Concentration Camp (1979 )
    Belovezhskaya Pushcha / Bialowieza Forest (1979 , 1992 ) *
    Historic Centre of Warsaw (1980 )
    Old City of Zamosc (1992 )
    Medieval Town of Torun (1997 )
    Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork (1997 )
    Kalwaria Zebrzydowska: the Mannerist Architectural and Park Landscape Complex and Pilgrimage Park (1999 )
    Churches of Peace in Jawor and Swidnica (2001 )
    Wooden Churches of Southern Little Poland (2003 )
    Muskauer Park / Park Muzakowski (2004 ) *

    Portugal
    Central Zone of the Town of Angra do Heroismo in the Azores (1983 )
    Monastery of the Hieronymites and Tower of Belem in Lisbon (1983 )
    Monastery of Batalha (1983 )
    Convent of Christ in Tomar (1983 )
    Historic Centre of Evora (1986 )
    Monastery of Alcobaça (1989 )
    Cultural Landscape of Sintra (1995 )
    Historic Centre of Oporto (1996 )
    Prehistoric Rock-Art Sites in the Côa Valley (1998 )
    Laurisilva of Madeira (1999 )
    Historic Centre of Guimarães (2001 )
    Alto Douro Wine Region (2001 )
    Landscape of the Pico Island Vineyard Culture (2004 )

    Republic of Korea
    Seokguram Grotto and Bulguksa Temple (1995 )
    Haeinsa Temple Janggyeong Panjeon, the Depositories for the Tripitaka Koreana Woodblocks (1995 )
    Jongmyo Shrine (1995 )
    Changdeokgung Palace Complex (1997 )
    Hwaseong Fortress (1997 )
    Gyeongju Historic Areas (2000 )
    Gochang, Hwasun, and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites (2000 )

    Romania
    Danube Delta (1991 )
    Villages with Fortified Churches in Transylvania (1993 , 1999 )
    Monastery of Horezu (1993 )
    Churches of Moldavia (1993 )
    Historic Centre of Sighisoara (1999 )
    Wooden Churches of Maramures (1999 )
    Dacian Fortresses of the Orastie Mountains (1999 )

    Russian Federation
    Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments (1990 )
    Kizhi Pogost (1990 )
    Kremlin and Red Square, Moscow (1990 )
    Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings (1992 )
    Cultural and Historic Ensemble of the Solovetsky Islands (1992 )
    White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal (1992 )
    Architectural Ensemble of the Trinity Sergius Lavra in Sergiev Posad (1993 )
    Church of the Ascension, Kolomenskoye (1994 )
    Virgin Komi Forests (1995 )
    Lake Baikal (1996 )
    Volcanoes of Kamchatka (1996 , 2001 )
    Golden Mountains of Altai (1998 )
    Western Caucasus (1999 )
    Historic and Architectural Complex of the Kazan Kremlin (2000 )
    The Ensemble of Ferrapontov Monastery (2000 )
    Curonian Spit (2000 ) *
    Central Sikhote-Alin (2001 )
    Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent (2003 )
    Uvs Nuur Basin (2003 ) *
    Natural System of Wrangel Island Reserve (2004 )
    Ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent (2004 )
    Saint Kitts and Nevis
    Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park (1999 )
    Saint Lucia
    Pitons Management Area (2004 )

    Senegal
    Island of Gorée (1978 )
    Niokolo-Koba National Park (1981 )
    Djoudj National Bird Sanctuary (1981 )
    Island of Saint-Louis (2000 )
    Serbia and Montenegro
    Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor (1979 )
    Stari Ras and Sopocani (1979 )
    Durmitor National Park (1980 )
    Studenica Monastery (1986 )
    Decani Monastery (2004 )
    Seychelles
    Aldabra Atoll (1982 )
    Vallée de Mai Nature Reserve (1983 )

    Slovakia
    Banska Stiavnica (1993 )
    Spissky Hrad and its Associated Cultural Monuments (1993 )
    Vlkolinec (1993 )
    Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst (1995 , 2000 ) * Bardejov Town Conservation Reserve (2000 )

    Slovenia
    Skocjan Caves (1986 )
    Solomon Islands
    East Rennell (1998 )

    South Africa
    Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park (1999 )
    Fossil Hominid Sites of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai, and Environs (1999 )
    Robben Island (1999 )
    UKhahlamba / Drakensberg Park (2000 )
    Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape (2003 )
    Cape Floral Region Protected Areas (2004 )

    Spain
    Historic Centre of Cordoba (1984 , 1994 )
    Alhambra, Generalife and Albayzin, Granada (1984 , 1994 )
    Burgos Cathedral (1984 )
    Monastery and Site of the Escurial, Madrid (1984 )
    Parque Güell, Palacio Güell and Casa Mila in Barcelona (1984 )
    Altamira Cave (1985 )
    Old Town of Segovia and its Aqueduct (1985 )
    Monuments of Oviedo and the Kingdom of the Asturias (1985 , 1998 )
    Santiago de Compostela (Old Town) (1985 )
    Old Town of Avila with its Extra-Muros Churches (1985 )
    Mudejar Architecture of Aragon (1986 , 2001 )
    Historic City of Toledo (1986 )
    Garajonay National Park (1986 )
    Old Town of Cáceres (1986 )
    Cathedral, Alcazar and Archivo de Indias in Seville (1987 )
    Old City of Salamanca (1988 )
    Poblet Monastery (1991 )
    Archaeological Ensemble of Mérida (1993 )
    Royal Monastery of Santa Maria de Guadalupe (1993 )
    Route of Santiago de Compostela (1993 )
    Doñana National Park (1994 )
    Historic Walled Town of Cuenca (1996 )
    La Lonja de la Seda de Valencia (1996 )
    Pyrénées - Mont Perdu (1997 , 1999 ) *
    Las Médulas (1997 )
    The Palau de la Música Catalana and the Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (1997 )
    San Millán Yuso and Suso Monasteries (1997 )
    Rock-Art of the Mediterranean Basin on the Iberian Peninsula (1998 )
    University and Historic Precinct of Alcalá de Henares (1998 )
    Ibiza, biodiversity and culture (1999 )
    San Cristóbal de La Laguna (1999 )
    Archaeological Ensemble of Tárraco (2000 )
    Palmeral of Elche (2000 )
    Roman Walls of Lugo (2000 )
    Catalan Romanesque Churches of the Vall de Boí (2000 )
    Archaeological Site of Atapuerca (2000 )
    Aranjuez Cultural Landscape (2001 )
    Renaissance Monumental Ensembles of Úbeda and Baeza (2003 )

    Sri Lanka
    Sacred City of Anuradhapura (1982 )
    Ancient City of Polonnaruwa (1982 )
    Ancient City of Sigiriya (1982 )
    Sinharaja Forest Reserve (1988 )
    Sacred City of Kandy (1988 )
    Old Town of Galle and its Fortifications (1988 )
    Golden Temple of Dambulla (1991 )

    Sudan
    Gebel Barkal and the Sites of the Napatan Region (2003 )

    Suriname
    Central Suriname Nature Reserve (2000 )
    Historic Inner City of Paramaribo (2002 )

    Sweden
    Royal Domain of Drottningholm (1991 )
    Birka and Hovgården (1993 )
    Engelsberg Ironworks (1993 )
    Rock Carvings in Tanum (1994 )
    Skogskyrkogården (1994 )
    Hanseatic Town of Visby (1995 )
    Church Village of Gammelstad, Luleå (1996 )
    Laponian Area (1996 )
    Naval Port of Karlskrona (1998 )
    High Coast (2000 )
    Agricultural Landscape of Southern Öland (2000 )
    Mining Area of the Great Copper Mountain in Falun (2001 )
    Varberg Radio Station (2004 )

    Switzerland
    Old City of Berne (1983 )
    Convent of St Gall (1983 )
    Benedictine Convent of St John at Müstair (1983 )
    Three Castles, Defensive Wall and Ramparts of the Market-town of Bellinzone (2000 )
    Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn (2001 ) Monte San Giorgio (2003 )

    Syrian Arab Republic
    Ancient City of Damascus (1979 )
    Ancient City of Bosra (1980 )
    Site of Palmyra (1980 )
    Ancient City of Aleppo (1986 )

    Thailand
    Historic Town of Sukhotai and Associated Historic Towns (1991 )
    Historic City of Ayutthaya and Associated Historic Towns (1991 )
    Thungyai - Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuaries (1991 )
    Ban Chiang Archaeological Site (1992 )
    the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
    Ohrid Region with its Cultural and Historical Aspect and its Natural Environment (1979 , 1980 )

    Togo
    Koutammakou, the Land of the Batammariba (2004 )

    Tunisia
    Medina of Tunis (1979 )
    Site of Carthage (1979 )
    Amphitheatre of El Jem (1979 )
    Ichkeul National Park (1980 )
    Punic Town of Kerkuane and its Necropolis (1985 , 1986 )
    Medina of Sousse (1988 )
    Kairouan (1988 )
    Dougga / Thugga (1997 )

    Turkey
    Historic Areas of Istanbul (1985 )
    Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia (1985 )
    Great Mosque and Hospital of Divrigi (1985 )
    Hattusha (1986 )
    Nemrut Dag (1987 )
    Xanthos-Letoon (1988 )
    Hierapolis-Pamukkale (1988 )
    City of Safranbolu (1994 )
    Archaeological Site of Troy (1998 )

    Turkmenistan
    State Historical and Cultural Park "Ancient Merv" (1999 )

    Uganda
    Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (1994 )
    Rwenzori Mountains National Park (1994 )
    Tombs of Buganda Kings at Kasubi (2001 )

    Ukraine
    Kiev: Saint-Sophia Cathedral and Related Monastic Buildings, Kiev-Pechersk Lavra (1990 )
    L'viv - the Ensemble of the Historic Centre (1998 )
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
    Giant's Causeway and Causeway Coast (1986 )
    Durham Castle and Cathedral (1986 )
    Ironbridge Gorge (1986 )
    Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey (1986 )
    Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites (1986 )
    Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd (1986 )
    St. Kilda (1986 , 2004 )
    Blenheim Palace (1987 )
    Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey and Saint Margaret's Church (1987 )
    City of Bath (1987 )
    Hadrian's Wall (1987 )
    Henderson Island (1988 )
    Tower of London (1988 )
    Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine's Abbey, and St Martin's Church (1988 )
    Old and New Towns of Edinburgh (1995 )
    Gough and Inaccessible Islands (1995 , 2004 )
    Maritime Greenwich (1997 )
    Heart of Neolithic Orkney (1999 )
    Historic Town of St George and Related Fortifications, Bermuda (2000 )
    Blaenavon Industrial Landscape (2000 )
    Saltaire (2001 )
    Dorset and East Devon Coast (2001 )
    Derwent Valley Mills (2001 )
    New Lanark (2001 )
    Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2003 )
    Liverpool - Maritime Mercantile City (2004 )

    United Republic of Tanzania
    Ngorongoro Conservation Area (1979 )
    Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (1981 )
    Serengeti National Park (1981 )
    Selous Game Reserve (1982 )
    Kilimanjaro National Park (1987 ) Stone Town of Zanzibar (2000 )

    United States of America
    Mesa Verde (1978 )
    Yellowstone (1978 )
    Kluane/Wrangell-St. Elias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek (1979 , 1992, 1994 ) *
    Grand Canyon National Park (1979 )
    Everglades National Park (1979 )
    Independence Hall (1979 )
    Redwood National Park (1980 )
    Mammoth Cave National Park (1981 )
    Olympic National Park (1981 )
    Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site (1982 )
    Great Smoky Mountains National Park (1983 )
    La Fortaleza and San Juan Historic Site in Puerto Rico (1983 )
    Statue of Liberty (1984 )
    Yosemite National Park (1984 )
    Chaco Culture National Historical Park (1987 )
    Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (1987 )
    Monticello and the University of Virginia in Charlottesville (1987 )
    Pueblo de Taos (1992 )
    Waterton Glacier International Peace Park (1995 ) * Carlsbad Caverns National Park (1995 )

    Uruguay
    Historic Quarter of the City of Colonia del Sacramento (1995 )

    Uzbekistan
    Itchan Kala (1990 )
    Historic Centre of Bukhara (1993 )
    Historic Centre of Shakhrisyabz (2000 )
    Samarkand - Crossroads of Cultures (2001 )

    Venezuela
    Coro and its Port (1993 )
    Canaima National Park (1994 )
    Ciudad Universitaria de Caracas (2000 )
    Viet Nam
    Complex of Hué Monuments (1993 )
    Ha Long Bay (1994 , 2000 )
    Hoi An Ancient Town (1999 )
    My Son Sanctuary (1999 )
    Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park (2003 )

    Yemen
    Old Walled City of Shibam (1982 )
    Old City of Sana'a (1986 )
    Historic Town of Zabid (1993 )

    Zambia
    Mosi-oa-Tunya / Victoria Falls (1989 ) *
    Zimbabwe
    Mana Pools National Park, Sapi and Chewore Safari Areas (1984 )
    Great Zimbabwe National Monument (1986 )
    Khami Ruins National Monument (1986 )
    Mosi-oa-Tunya / Victoria Falls (1989 ) *
    Matobo Hills (2003 )
    *: transboundary property

    Link directory for Toronto school, colleges and universities

    SchoolNet
    Ontario College Application Services
    Ontario College University Tranfer Guide
    Ontario Online Universities' Application Centre
    Ontario Student Assistance Program
    Study In Canada
    Airline Training International
    Albert Campbell Collegiate Institute
    Appleby College
    Arrowsmith School - specializes in learning dysfunctions
    Bannockburn School
    Bayview Glen - coed private school, preschool to Gr 13
    Bethany Hills School
    Bialik Hebrew Day School -JK to Gr 8
    Bishop Allan Academy
    Blake Jr. Public School
    Braeburn Junior School
    Branksome Hall
    Brebeuf College School - Catholic high school
    Briarcrest Junior School
    Broadacres Junior School
    Canadian Forces College
    Cedarbrae Collegiate Institute
    Cedar Grove - private, JK to Gr 8
    Centennial College - located in the former Scarborough
    Central Technical High School
    Centre for Research in Earth & Space Technology
    Contact Alternative School
    Conseil Scolaire (CSDCSO) - French Public Schools
    Conseil Scolaire (CSDCSO) - French Catholic Schools
    Crescent School
    Crestwood School
    Danforth Collegiate and Technical Institute
    David and Mary Thomson Collegiate Institute
    David Hornell Jr Middle School
    David Lewis Public School
    De La Salle College 'Oaklands'
    Dixon Grove Jr Middle School
    Don Mills Collegiate
    Downsview Secondary School
    Downtown Alternative School
    Durham College
    Earl Haig Secondary School
    Etienne Brulé Jr. School
    Etobicoke School of the Arts
    Fieldstone Day School
    Firgrove Public School
    George Brown College
    George Anderson Public School
    George Harvey Collegiate
    George S. Henry Academy
    North York Grace Chinese Gospel School
    Greenholme Jr School
    Harris Institute for the Arts
    Havergal College - girls boarding/day school for JK-OAC
    Herzing Career College
    Highfield Jr School
    High Park Alternative School
    Holy Trinity School
    Humber College
    Humber Valley Village Jr Middle School
    Intrnl. Academy of Design & Technology
    Jarvis Collegiate
    John English J.M. School
    John G. Althouse Middle School
    King Edward Public School
    Kingsway College School
    Kingsley Primary School
    Lambton-Kingsway J.M. School
    L'Amoreaux Collegiate Institute
    Lakeview College School
    Langstaff Secondary School
    Millwood Jr School
    Michener Institute for Applied Health Sciences
    Montcrest School
    Mountview Alternative Public School
    National Ballet School
    Neuchatel Jr College
    Newmarket & District Christian Academy
    Norman Bethune Collegiate
    Norseman Jr Middle School
    Northern Secondary School
    North Albion Collegiate
    North Toronto Collegiate Institute
    Oakwood Collegiate
    Ontario College of Art & Design
    Parkdale Collegiate Institute
    Parkdale Public School JR/SR
    Port Royal Public School
    Richview Collegiate Institute
    Rogers Communications Centre
    Rosedale Heights SS
    Royal Conservatory of Music
    Royal Military Colleges of Canada Club
    Royal St. George's College - boys - Gr. 3-OAC
    Ryerson Polytechnic University
    Sawmill Valley Public School
    The School House
    St. Clement's School
    St. Michael's College School
    Seneca College
    Seventh Street Jr School
    Sheridan College
    Shirley St. Public School
    Sommerville Manor School
    Spectrum Alternative Sr. School
    Sunnybrook Health Science Centre
    Sunnybrook School
    Swansea Public School
    The Centre for Creative Communications
    The New School of Drama
    Toronto Catholic District School Board
    Toronto District School Board
    Toronto French School
    Toronto Montessori Schools
    Univ of Toronto - Mississauga
    University of Toronto Schools
    Upper Canada College
    Ursula Franklin Academy
    Waterfront Montessori Childrens Centre
    Wedgewood Jr Public School
    West Hill Public School
    West Humber Collegiate Institute
    Westmount Jr School
    Westway Jr School
    Wexford Collegiate Institute
    Whitney School - Gr. K-6
    William L. Mackenzie Collegiate
    York School
    Yorkland Christian School
    York University